The term Knowledge Organization (KO) started in the field of Library Information Science (LIS) around 1900. KO is indispensable for the accomplishment of any open library. The term has various implications with viewpoints from various fields. In a more extensive viewpoint, KO infers arranging data socially, and characterizing ideas and relations between them.
In the LIS space, KO has a significance identified with taking care of and overseeing information assets deliberately so they become effectively open.
What is Knowledge Organization?
With regards to public library, KO includes portraying reports, ordering and inventoriing, characterizing and putting together the information assets, for example, data sets, documents, maps and other information sources in different organizations. It is directed by data trained professionals, chroniclers, subject matter experts, just as PC calculations.
Information Organization – Different Approaches
There are different ways to deal with information association. They are as per the following −
The Traditional Approach
It is the arrangement frameworks utilized in libraries and data sets, including DDC, LCC and UDC (returning to around 1876). Melvil Dewey, a money manager attempted to discover a normalized answer for oversee library assortments effectively. He created Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) that helped the library head more than the library client. The customary methodology of KO relies on −
- The rule of controlled jargon (maintaining a strategic distance from equivalents and homonyms as ordering terms by utilizing normalized jargon)
- The Cutter's standard about explicitness (decide says that it is consistently the most explicit, most fitting articulations that ought to be alluded in the jargon. This way the recovering of subjects is generally unsurprising)
- The Hulme's standard of abstract warrant (If the occasional framework or documentations of Chemistry can be utilized for characterization)
- Standard of getting sorted out from the general to the particular. (Organize from general subjects to explicit subjects)
The Facet-Analytical Approach
This methodology was propounded by Dr. Ranganathan around 1933. This methodology is additionally evolved by the British Classification Research Group. Given subjects or book titles are dissected for a couple of regular classes named as aspects. Dr. Ranganathan proposed his Personality, Matter, Energy, Space and Time (PMEST) equation −
- Character => Unique quality of a subject
- Matter => Physical material with which a subject is made
- Energy => Any activity happening as for the subject
- Space => Geographic area of a subject
- Time => The time frame related with a subject
Today, this procedure is utilized in trading metadata and creating pages utilizing XML.
The Information Retrieval (IR) Tradition
This methodology was established during the twentieth century around 1950. It hopefully expects that the client question contains all the data expected to look. It depends on factual midpoints and it doesn't think about various sorts of questions and calculations can serve various clients with changed interests.
Client Oriented Approach
This methodology acquired impact around 1970s. It is more easy to use.
It was created in 1963. It is for the most part dependent on the utilization of bibliographical references for getting sorted out organizations of papers, articles, or pages. This methodology utilizes bibliographic coupling. This methodology can be utilized to give applicant terms to thesauri and beneficial terms.
The Domain Analytic Approach
This methodology came around 1994. This methodology perceives a predicament — In request to choose the term, one requirements to have an earlier comprehension of the field. Unexpectedly, to comprehend the field, one has to know the term. This methodology attempts to settle this situation utilizing iterative strategies.
Sorts of Documents
An archive is a composed, drawn, or recorded idea on paper or other material. There are different kinds of records −
These archives are recorded by composing, composing, printing, or some close printing measure, basically in regular language in different contents on silk, fabric, bark, leaves, dividers, and paper. Guides are additionally regular records.
- Volume − A field of epitomized musings spread across different papers or other material attached or joined together.
- Full scale Document − The report that epitomizes full scale thought in at least one volumes.
- Host Document − Macro report saw from the point of view of archive framing part of the equivalent.
- Miniature record − The archive that epitomizes miniature idea, ordinarily shapes a piece of the host report.
- Occasional Publications − The report with characteristics of periodicity, year of distribution, and volume number.
- Supplement − It can be an intermittent, a book, or a unique enhancement.
- Books − It can be of basic, composite, common or falsely composite sorts.
- Confined Document − The report expected to be appropriated distinctly to chose foundations and people.
- House Document − The record delivered by a business, mechanical, or other comparative establishment and proposed for utilize just inside it.
- Private Document − The record expected distinctly for private dissemination.
- Mystery Document − The record expected not to be circled past a named gathering of clients.
- Copyright Document − The record stood to the copyright encumbrance, which can't be imitated without the assent of the proprietor of the copyright.
- Non-copyright Document − The record liberated from copyright encumbrance and accessible to be duplicated without anybody's assent.
They incorporate information of characteristic sciences, licenses, principles, determinations, response or atomic formulae in Chemistry, clinical information, and news with respect to sociologies are altogether types of Neo-Conventional Documents.
- Standard − Research, Layman, Elementary, and Reporting are regular norms.
- Patent − Government expert for barring contenders to guarantee, make, or sell a creation.
- Information − Specifications and realities.
They incorporate the accompanying kinds −
- Sound Document
- Visual Document
- General media Document
Classifying of Documents
The first classifying of books more likely than not appear when it got hard to recollect the area and different subtleties of the library material from an adequately enormous assortment of material exclusively by memory.
Classifying is the precise posting and association of the information assets with the end goal that they can be recovered without any problem.
Old English American Cataloging Rules (AACR)
AACRs cover the depiction of and the arrangement of passages for all the library materials ordinarily gathered today. The American Library Association from US and the Library Association from UK, who both were attempting to create indexes officially concurred in 1904 to coordinate in setting recording rules.
The primary version of AACR was distributed in North American writings and British writings in 1967. The two writings of AACR contained three sections: Part I of Entry and Heading, Part II of Description, and Part III of rules for Non-book materials.
Helpful Cataloging Council (CCC)
The CCC is a group of delegates capable from the Library of Congress and other public libraries. It takes an interest in recording programs. It is liable for
- Deciding objectives and arranging the timetable for accomplishing the equivalent
- Executing the recognized prerequisites
- Distinguishing the effective issues
- Analyzing the issues identified with classifying
- Making proposals and suggestions to the Library of Congress, the most established exploration and public library that formally serves the United States Congress.
Singes List of Subject Headings
The Sears List of Subject Headings is an information base that contains a rundown of headings with examples and models that directs the cataloger to make further headings when required. Since its first version in 1923, the Sears list has been serving little and medium libraries. The goal of building this data set is to make the library assortments effectively accessible to its clients.
Continuously new versions continued coming and the most recent 21st release of the Sears List today contains in excess of 250 subject headings which is accessible in both; print and online configuration. The online Sears List can be perused and looked for a specific heading.
The Indian Library Science Expert Dr. Ranganathan characterized subject as an expected term. Subject is vital in the area of library with regards to getting sorted out, overseeing, and keeping up the information assets in the library. Subject term just as its importance is crucial for brisk recovery of the data.
The most pertinent topic helps the cataloger and the library staff to comprehend and recognize the information component effectively.
Bibliographic Organization or Bibliographic Control
Book index is the methodical and fastidious rundown of assets alluded by a writer. It additionally incorporates references of music, recordings, and sounds, or reference books and word references, aside from different bits of composed work.
Bibliographic Organization or control includes all the tasks needed to sort out the recorded data as indicated by the set up principles with the goal that it tends to be recovered without any problem. There are three sorts of Bibliographic control −
- Enumerative (posting references as indicated by certain course of action)
- Logical (posting references as indicated by the set of experiences, book's actual properties, and writings)
- Clarified (Listing references as per the point and creator's comments).
Book Number Organization
Book numbers (likewise called thing numbers) consolidate with assortment numbers and class numbers to frame call numbers. Book numbers give a way to arrange and arrange books of a similar subject that share a similar class number.
Book numbers are the last advance in order. This progression relegates an interesting spot to a book in an assortment. Book numbers are a significant piece of order and recording in the library. While picking a book number it is concluded whether to orchestrate books in order by writer name or sequentially by year of distribution.
For the most part,
- Book Number = Author number + Title (or work) + Edition mark + Publication Date + Volume Number + Copy Number
- Call Number = Class Number + Book Number with Collection number toward the beginning or end