Interview Questions.

Top 100+ Immunology Interview Questions And Answers

fluid

Top 100+ Immunology Interview Questions And Answers

Question 1. What Is Immuno Electrophoresis?

Answer :

The resolving strength of immuno diffusion become greatly more desirable bye immuno electrophoresis. This entails the electrophoretic separation of antigen into its constituent proteins observed via immuno diffusion.

This technique is performed on 1% agarose gel. Antigen combination is first electrophori zed and separated primarily based on price, troughs are then cut inside the agarose gel, and antiserum is brought to the troughs.

The agarose gel is then incubated 1824hrs at some point of which the antigen and antibody diffuse closer to each other. The formation of precipitin bands can be determined for the character antigen additives.

Question 2. How Is Immuno Electrophoresis More Advance Than Paper Electrophoresis?

Answer :

In paper electrophoresis, serum proteins can be separated into 5 one of a kind bands but the identical protein using immuno electrophoresis can be separated into 30 exclusive proteins.

Microbiology Interview Questions
Question three. Give Some Applications Of Immuno Electrophoresis?

Answer :

This method is beneficial for checking out ordinary and strange proteins in serum and urine.
It is beneficial to decide whether or not a affected person produces abnormally a low amount of one or greater proteins.
It is also used if a patient over produces a few serum proteins.
Question 4. What Is Counter Current Immuno Electrophoresis?

Answer :

This technique includes the simultaneous electrophoresis of antigen and antibody in the gel in the contrary direction ensuing in precipitation of point where there is top-rated attention of antigenantibody.

This approach produces visible precipitin with in half-hour and is 10 times more sensitive than the usual double diffusion method.

Question five. Give Application Of Counter Current Immuno Electrophoresis?

Answer :

This method is carried out to stumble on the antibody towards hepatitisB and to detect antibodies against SLE (systemic leupus erythromotosis) and used to locate unique antigen foemeningo coccus in cerebrospinal fluid.

BioChemistry Interview Questions
Question 6. What Is Immuno Fluorescence?

Answer :

Fluorescence is the belongings of absorbing light ray of precise wavelength and emitting rays in distinctive wavelength.

Antigens that are certain to cells or tissue sections can be visualized through tugging the antibody molecule with a fluorescent dye or fluorochrome.

Question 7. What Are The Most Commonly Used Fluorescent Dyes?

Answer :

The most commonly used fluorescent dyes are fluorescin or rhodamine. Both dyes may be conjugated to Fc place of antibody without affecting the specificity of the antigen.

Clinical Research Interview Questions
Question eight. Into How Many Types Is Immuno Fluorescence Is Divided?

Answer :

Immuno fluorescence is split into 2 kinds

Direct immuno fluorescence
Indirect immuno fluorescence
Question 9. What Are Heterophile Antigens?

Answer :

Heterophile antigens are polysaccharides, which are structurally comparable because of their restricted complexity. They are derived from participants of extensively separated taxonomic businesses.

Genetics Interview Questions
Question 10. What Is Horseman Antigen?

Answer :

The glycolipid antigens are found in maximum tissues of guinea pigs however not in the RBC. They are determined in gastrointestinal mucosa in some humans. This horseman antigen will not set off antibody formation.

Question 11. Into How Many Types Is Antigen-antibody Reactions Are Broadly Classified?

Answer :

It is widely categorized into 5.

Precipitation
Agglutination
Complement fixation
Immunoassay using labeled reagents
Immunohistrochemistry (Immunoflourescence)
Clinical trial management gadget Interview Questions
Question 12. Briefly Describe About Precipitation Reaction?

Answer :

When a soluble antigen combines with corresponding antibody in the presence of electrolyte at a suitable temperature and pH, the antigenantibody complex forms an insoluble precipitate Antibodies that shape precipitate ate called precipitants.

Microbiology Interview Questions
Question 13. Give The Mechanism Of Precipitation?

Answer :

Marrak proposed the lattice speculation to give an explanation for the mechanism of precipitation.

The amount of precipitate shaped is greatly prompted by means of relative proportions of antigens and antibodies.

The valency of antigens is multivalent.

When antigenantibody is in most appropriate attention, the precipitation is entire. So that, massive lattice is shaped.

Question 14. What Are The Three Distinct Phases That A Precipitation Shows?

Answer :

The three wonderful levels are

Ascending component referred to as ‘region of antibody excess’.
A peak called ‘zone of equivalence’.
A descending part referred to as ‘sector of antigen extra’.
Question 15. What Is Zone Of Antibody Excess?

Answer :

In this, the first available antigen is absolutely crammed by way of antibody molecules. Hence, no antigenic determinant is ignored unfastened. Unreacted antibody is visible in large quantity, hence poor lattice formation.

Cell Biology Interview Questions
Question sixteen. What Is Zone Of Equivalence?

Answer :

In this, ratio of antigenantibody is seen best which results in large multimolecular lattice, as a result most precipitation is determined.

Question 17. What Are The Applications Of Precipitation Reactions?

Answer :

Precipitation reaction is the primary response for a number of techniques.
It is less sensitive for detecting antibodies.
Precipitation reactions in gels have numerous benefits as opposed to in liquid medium.
They have forensic application in identity of blood and seminal stains.
Clinical Laboratory Technician Interview Questions
Question 18. What Are Immuno Diffusion Reactions?

Answer :

These reactions may be used to determine relative concentrations of antigens and antibodies to evaluate antigens and to determine the relative purity of an antigen. They are mainly preformed in 1% agarose gels.

BioChemistry Interview Questions
Question 19. Name The Two-immuno Diffusion Techniques?

Answer :

Radial immuno diffusion approach and
Double immuno diffusion in two dimensions
Question 20. What Is Radial Immuno Diffusion Method?

Answer :

It is used to qualitate the antigen. Suitable dilution of antiserum is included in the agar gel. Antigen is added to the wells cut at the floor of the gel. As the antigen diffuses into the agar area, equivalence is set up and ring of precipitation is shaped. The vicinity of precipitin ring is immediately proportional to the concentration of antigen. By evaluating the area of precipitin with a fashionable curve acquired by means of measuring the precipitin area of known awareness of antigen, the awareness of antigen within the given sample can be determined.

Question 21. What Is The Limitation For Radial Immuno Diffusion Method?

Answer :

This technique cannot the antigens found in attention underneath 510 micro grams/ml.

Question 22. What Is Double Immuno Diffusion Method?

Answer :

In this method, both antigens and antibodies diffuse greatly from wells closer to every other with the aid of organising a attention gradient. As equivalence is reached, a visible line of precipitation is located.

The styles of precipitin lines that are shaped while  specific antigens are placed in adjoining wells suggest whether or not they percentage any commonplace epitope or no longer.

Identity takes place while two antigens proportion identical epitopes? consequently, the line of precipitation shaped through them will fuse to provide unmarried curve line of identification.

Nonidentity happens when  antigens are unrelated. The antiserum form independent precipitin strains that go each different.

Partial identification takes place whilst two antigens share not unusual epitope. The antiserum paperwork line of identification with the not unusual epitope and a curved spur with the precise epitope.

Question 23. What Is An Epitope?

Answer :

The smallest unit of antigenesity is referred to as antigenic determinant or epitope. The a part of the antigen at which the antibody reacts is known as epitope or antigenic determinant.

It is a small region possessing precise chemical shape and stereo configuration on the antigen able to sensitizing on immuno website and of reacting with its complimentary web page at the particular antibody.

Question 24. What Is A Paratope?

Answer :

The part of the antibody molecule that binds to the epitope is called as paratope. Epitope and paratope determine the specificity of immunological reactions.

Clinical Research Interview Questions
Question 25. What Are The Forces That Are Responsible For Antigen-antibody Reactions?

Answer :

The system that holds antigenantibody collectively is known as nonspecific interactions. Inter molecular forces can be labeled into four1.

Electrostatic bonds
Hydrogen bonds
Hydrophobic interactions
Vander Val interactions
Question 26. Explain In Brief About Electrostatic Bonds In Antigen-antibody Interaction?

Answer :

These are shaped due to the enchantment among opposite charged protein side chains.

Question 27. Explain In Brief About Hydrogen Bonds Antigen-antibody Interaction?

Answer :

Reversible hydrogen bonds are shaped among hydrophilic companies which includes hydroxyl, amino and carboxylic institution. Although hydrogen bonds are pretty susceptible, they play an important position in interaction of antigenantibody.

Genetics Interview Questions
Question 28. Explain In Brief About Hydrophobic Interactions In Antigen-antibody Interaction?

Answer :

Contribute as much as 50% of the whole electricity of antigenantibody interactions. These reactions are located when ever the side chains of nonpolar amino acids of antigenantibody come together.

Question 29. Explain In Brief About Vander Val Interactions In Antigen-antibody Interaction?

Answer :

Temporary transfer of electrons from one molecule to some other will bring about the force of appeal among them. This is seen whilst the interacting molecules come close to each different.

Question 30. What Is Affinity Of An Antibody?

Answer :

The electricity of binding of an antibody to a monovalent antigen or unmarried antigenic determinant is referred to as affinity of an antibody.

Question 31. What Is Avidity?

Answer :

The capacity of an antiserum containing various antibodies to mix with the whole antigen is called avidity. Thus, avidity is used to indicate the general potential of an antibody to mix with multivalent antigen.

A multivalent antigen has many forms of antigenic determinants, whilst that is injected into the blood each antigenic determinant stimulate the manufacturing of unique antibody.

Question 32. What Is A Cross-response?

Answer :

Antigenantibody reactions are unique, but in a few instances antibody elicited by way of one antigen can move react with every other antigen. This reaction is known as as crossreaction and the antigen that produces crossreaction is called as crossreactive antigen. Crossreaction is due to the presence of two or greater antigenic determinants at the related antigen.

Question 33. Give An Example Of Cross-reaction?

Answer :

Cross reactivity is regularly determined in polysaccharide antigens that contain comparable oligosaccharide residue. A, B, O blood group antigens These are glycoprotein expressed on RBC.

Clinical trial management machine Interview Questions
Question 34. Give The Classification Of Hypersensitivity?

Answer :

Hypersensitivity is classified into 5 kinds:

Anaphylaxis
Antibody dependant cytotoxicity
Immune complicated mediated illnesses
Delayed kind ‘o’ cellular mediated hypersensitive reaction
Stimulatory allergic reaction
Question 35. What Is Anaphylaxis?

Answer :

It is maximum rapid allergy. It responds within minutes of making use of a stimulus and might get localize. Reactions are mediated by using release of pharmacologically energetic materials.

Question 36. What Is Hypersensitivity?

Answer :

The inflammatory reaction produced by means of inflammatory molecules result in tissue damage and some times even death. We call this as allergy or hypersensitivity.

Cell Biology Interview Questions
Question 37. What Is Delayed Hypersensitivity?

Answer :

We can apprehend the Symptoms simplest days after exposure. This is delayed allergy (DTH).

Question 38. What Is A Myeloma Protein?

Answer :

It is a monoclonal immunoglobulin made out of a myeloma cell.

Question 39. What Is Opsonin?

Answer :

Opsonin is a substance, which promotes phagocytosis of antigens by binding to them.

Question forty. What Is An Incomplete Antibody?

Answer :

Antibody can bind to an antigen however cannot result in agglutination is known as incomplete antibody.

Clinical Laboratory Technician Interview Questions
Question 41. What Are Iccosomes?

Answer :

The debris lined with immune complexes and are launched from follicular dendritic mobile extensions, are referred to as as iccosomes.

Question 42. Name The Scientists Who Classified Hypersensitivity?

Answer :

Coombs and Gell.

Question forty three. What Are Hypersensitive Reactions?

Answer :

If humoral or mobile immunity is switch on to high for length of time, tissue harm can also occur. Such reactions are known as hypersensitive reactions.

Question 44. What Is Auto Immunity?

Answer :

Disease due to immunological reaction to selfantigen. Such form of diseases is assessed either organ precise or nonorgan specific.

Question forty five. Name Some Of The Immuno Suppressive Agents?

Answer :

Cytotoxic marketers which include chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, and azathioprine
Glucocorticoids
Cyclosporine
Antilymphocyte antibodies
Question 46. What Is Immuno Suppression?

Answer :

Immuno suppression is especially given to the sufferers who're undergoing organ transplantation inside the remedy of autoimmunity, graft rejection and in hypersensitive reaction conditions.

Question 47. What Are The Types In Adjuvants?

Answer :

Organic adjuvants
Synthetic adjuvants
Tuftsin
Question 48. What Is An Adjuvant?

Answer :

Adjuvant potentates the immune reaction Vaccines want to be greater by a few substances, those materials are called adjuvants.

Question forty nine. What Is Vaccination?

Answer :

Vaccination means exploiting the immune system to defend in opposition to infectious illnesses. Vaccination is completed to protect towards deadly diseases along with mumps, rubella, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, small pox and so forth.

Question 50. What Is Attenuation?

Answer :

Natural behavior of an organism with out causing sickness is called attenuation i.E. Reducing pathogenesity of the organism.

Question fifty one. What Is Secondary Immune Response?

Answer :

Secondary immune reaction takes place while second publicity to the equal antigen occurs after weeks, months or after years.

Question fifty two. What Is Inductive Or Latent Period?

Answer :

After immunogen is brought no antibody is detected, this is latent or inductive period. In this era, immunogen is diagnosed as a overseas substance.

Question 53. What Is Primary Immune Response?

Answer :

First exposure to an antigen produces number one immune reaction.

Question 54. What Is A Binder?

Answer :

The binding protein (commonly antibody) which binds to the ligand is called as binder.

Question 55. What Is An Analyte Or Ligand?

Answer :

The substance whose concentration is to be decided is called as an analyte or ligand.

Question 56. What Is Importance Of Radio Immuno Assay?

Answer :

It is the most sensitive approach used for detecting antigen or antibody. This type of reaction is also referred to as as binder ligand assay.

Question fifty seven. In Radio Immuno Assay What Is The Used To Label An Antigen?

Answer :

In this method, the antigen is typically categorised with aemitting isotopes consisting of I125.

Question fifty eight. What Is Radio Immuno Assay?

Answer :

It is a aggressive binding assay in which fixed quantity of antibody and radiolabelled antigen react in the presence of unlabelled antigen.

Question 59. What Is Western Blotting?

Answer :

Identification of particular protein in a complex combination of proteins may be finished bye a technique that is called western blotting.

Question 60. What Are The Enzymes Used For Labeling Of Antibodies?

Answer :

Enzymes used for labeling of antibodies are horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, ßgalactosidase, lacto preoxidase, etc.

Question sixty one. What Is The Signi&cance Of Indirect Elisa?

Answer :

It is used for the detection of the presence of serum antibodies towards immuno deficiency virus (HIV, the causative agent of AIDS).

Question 62. In How Many Ways Elisa Can Be Carried Out?

Answer :

It may be accomplished in three methods.

Indirect ELISA
Sand witch ELISA
Competitive ELISA
Question sixty three. What Is The Signi&cance Of Elisa?

Answer :

It is used for the detection and for identification of either antigen or antibody.

Question sixty four. Name Two Enzymes That Have Been Employed For Elisa?

Answer :

Alkaline, phosphatase, horseradish, preoxidase
Para nitro phenyl phosphatase
Question sixty five. What Is The Basic Principle Of Elisa?

Answer :

The fundamental principle is an enzyme conjugated to n antibody reacts with a colorless substrate to generate a coloured product.

Question 66. What Is The Full Form Of Elisa?

Answer :

Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay.

Question sixty seven. What Are The Uses Of Indirect Immuno Fluorescence?

Answer :

For figuring out bacterial species
Detecting antigenantibody complexes in autoimmune sicknesses
Detecting compliment additives in tissues.
Localizing hormones
Question 68. What Are The Advantages Of Indirect Immuno Fluorescence?

Answer :

The number one does not need to be conjugated with label.

It increases the sensitivity of staining due to the fact a couple of fluorochrome reagents will bind to every antibody molecule.

This method has brilliant flexibility.

Question sixty nine. What Is Indirect Immuno Fluorescence?

Answer :

In a way the number one unlabelled antibody is detected with some of reagents had been developed for oblique staining. The maximum common is fluorescence categorised anti isotype antibody along with fluoroscin classified goatmouse antibody.

Question 70. What Is The Disadvantage Of Direct Immuno Fluorescence?

Answer :

A separate fluorescent conjugate should be organized towards every antigen to be tested.

Question 71. What Is Direct Immuno Fluorescence?

Answer :

In this technique, the species antibodies are number one antibodies, that are directly conjugated to fluorescent dye.

Question 72. What Is Antigenic Specificity?

Answer :

Antigen antibody reaction is unique and specificity is decided by way of special configuration of antigenic decide.

Question seventy three. Give Some General Features Of Antigen-antibody Interaction?

Answer :

The reaction is specific and antigen combines best with its corresponding antibody and vice versa.
Entire molecules react but now not the fragment.
There isn't any denaturation of antigen or antibody for the duration of the response.
The mixture of antigen – antibody is company however reversible. The firmness of the reaction is prompted by means of the affinity and avidity of the response.
Both antigens and antibodies take part within the formation of agglutination and precipitation reactions.
Antigens and antibodies can combine in diverse proportions unlike chemicals with fixed valancy.
Question 74. What Is An Antigen And Antibody Interaction?

Answer :

Antigenantibody interaction is much like an enzyme substrate interaction. The reaction between antigen and antibody happens in two tiers. Primary level is the preliminary interaction of antigenantibody with none visible impact .The response is rapid and obeys the overall regulation of thermodynamics and physical chemistry.

The number one degree is accompanied through the secondary level main to illustrate events which includes precipitation, lysis of cells, neutralization of toxins and fixation of compliments and so on.

Question seventy five. Briefly Describe About Dosage And Route Of Administration, Which Make A Substance Antigenic?

Answer :

Combination of optical dosage and routes of management will result in a peak immune reaction in a given animal. An insufficient dose will now not stimulate an immune response. An excessive dose does no longer supply a height immune response because it reasons a country of immunological unresponsiveness or nonresponse called immunological tolerance.




CFG