Top 100+ Cloudera Interview Questions And Answers
Question 1. What Is Cloudera?
Cloudera is revolutionizing enterprise facts control with the aid of providing the primary unified Platform for Big Data: The Enterprise Data Hub. Cloudera offers organisations one region to keep, technique, and analyze all their data, empowering them to increase the fee of existing investments even as permitting fundamental new methods to derive fee from their statistics.
Founded in 2008, Cloudera was the primary, and is currently, the leading company and supporter of Apache Hadoop for the organization. Cloudera additionally offers software program for commercial enterprise crucial records challenges including garage, access, management, analysis, safety, and seek.
Customer fulfillment is Cloudera's highest precedence. We’ve enabled lengthy-time period, a hit deployments for loads of clients, with petabytes of facts collectively under control, throughout diverse industries.
Question 2. Why Do Customers Choose Cloudera?
Cloudera turned into the primary business company of Hadoop-related software program and services and has the most customers with enterprise necessities, and the maximum experience supporting them, within the industry. Cloudera’s combined providing of differentiated software (open and closed source), assist, training, professional services, and indemnity brings clients the greatest commercial enterprise cost, inside the shortest quantity of time, at the bottom TCO.
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Question three. What Is An Enterprise Data Hub?
An employer data hub is one region to store all of your information, for so long as favored or required, in its original fidelity; included with current infrastructure and tools; with the ability to run an expansion of organisation workloads -- inclusive of batch processing, interactive SQL, company seek, and superior analytics -- together with the sturdy protection, governance, information safety, and management that organisations require. With an company facts hub, leading businesses are converting the manner they reflect onconsideration on records, transforming it from a price into an asset.
Question four. What Is Hadoop?
The Hadoop challenge, which Doug Cutting (now Cloudera's Chief Architect) co-founded in 2006, is an effort to create open supply implementations of internal structures utilized by Web-scale corporations together with Google, Yahoo!, and Facebook to control and procedure large records volumes. Hadoop, blended with related surroundings tasks, allows distributed, parallel processing of huge amounts of facts across industry-trendy servers (with garage and processing happening on the equal machines), and it is able to scale indefinitely.
Question 5. What Is Hadoop Role In An Enterprise Data Hub?
Hadoop has evolved right into a stable, scalable, bendy center for next-technology facts control -- but on its very own, it lacks some vital skills when deployed as the middle of an organisation records hub. For example, it lacks a complete security version throughout the entire environment of tasks. Hadoop was also constructed for batch-mode data processing workloads, which limits it to an ancillary position in the records center. (Rather, a principal organization records hub must have real-time capability.) And Hadoop doesn’t assist the range of enterprise-wellknown interfaces for question and seek applications, among others, that business customers require.
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Question 6. What Are Some Common Use Cases For An Enterprise Data Hub?
A Hadoop-based totally company statistics hub lets in you to process and get admission to more data than ever earlier than, so it has many near-time period (operational) in addition to long-time period (strategic) use instances across more than one industries. Generally, company information hub use cases fall into those huge classes:
Transformation and enrichment: Transform and process huge amounts of records extra quick, reliably, and affordably (for loading into the records warehouse, as an instance).
Active archive: Get get entry to to facts that would in any other case be taken offline (typically to tape) due to the high fee of actively handling it.
Self-carrier exploratory BI: Allow users to discover records, with complete security, the usage of conventional interactive commercial enterprise intelligence equipment through SQL and key-word seek.
Advanced analytics: Rather than making them study samples of data, or snapshots from quick time intervals, let users combine all historical information, in its complete fidelity, for comprehensive analyses.
Question 7. What Are Cloudera's Products?
Cloudera’s platform, that is designed to particularly address customer possibilities and demanding situations in Big Data, is available within the form of free/unsupported merchandise (CDH or Cloudera Express, for those fascinated completely in a loose Hadoop distribution), or as supported, organisation-magnificence software (Cloudera Enterprise - in Basic, Flex, and Data Hub variations) within the form of an annual subscription. All the combination work is done for you, and the whole solution is very well tested for corporation necessities and absolutely documented.
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Question 8. Why Do I Need A Cloudera Enterprise Subscription?
Cloudera Enterprise subscriptions, which encompass get right of entry to to differentiated machine and records management software program, 8x5 or 24x7 help, and indemnity, is an essential factor in any sustainable deployment of an corporation statistics hub.
Question 9. What Makes Cloudera's Products Unique?
Cloudera’s platform has several differentiating attributes that make it specific, which includes:
Differences from commercial options: Cloudera offers differentiating abilties inclusive of manufacturing-grade interactive SQL and Search on Hadoop; comprehensive device management with rolling improvements, automated disaster recovery, centralized safety, proactive fitness tests, and multi-cluster control; and simplified records control with granular auditing and get right of entry to manage abilties.
Differences from inventory Apache Hadoop: Although Cloudera's platform contains the equal code that can be determined inside the “upstream” Hadoop atmosphere tasks, on a everyday (quarterly) foundation, Cloudera ships new computer virus fixes and strong capabilities for users of its platform on a quarterly foundation (and contributes them to the upstream code base, as properly). Thus, Cloudera clients get predictable and everyday get admission to to platform improvements, along side the assurances of rigorous testing and upstream compatibility.
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Question 10. What Does Cloudera’s Open Source Leadership Mean For Customers?
Open supply blessings, consisting of freedom from lock-in, are tangible and time-tested. That said, they're just desk stakes while deploying an agency data hub primarily based on open supply software program together with Hadoop.
Cloudera also leads the manner to ensure that consumer needs for performance, availability, security, and recoverability are met by new functions inside the Apache code base, and then transport/helping the ones features for customers in our platform. To make that aim feasible, Cloudera employs extra ecosystem committers, establishes greater a hit new ecosystem projects, and contributes greater code to that atmosphere, than some other dealer.
Question eleven. Is Cloudera's Platform Open Source?
The center of Cloudera’s platform, CDH, is open supply (Apache License), so customers constantly have the option to transport their information to an opportunity -- and as a consequence Cloudera ought to continually earn your commercial enterprise primarily based on advantage. In fact, Cloudera is an open supply leader in Big Data, with its personnel collectively contributing extra code to the Hadoop atmosphere than those of another business enterprise.
Cloudera complements this open core with closed supply management software program that provides key organisation capability requested through clients together with guide for rolling upgrades, auditing management, and catastrophe restoration. That software program, but, does not shop or process facts and consequently lock-in isn't an difficulty.
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Question 12. Why Does Open Source Matter For Customers?
Open supply licensing and development offers customers effective benefits, which includes freedom from lock-in, loose no-responsibility assessment, rapid innovation on a global scale, and network-driven development. Freedom from lock-in is especially critical for clients wherein components that save and method records are worried.
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Question 13. Do Cloudera’s Products Work With My Existing Data Management Infrastructure?
The Cloudera Connect Partner Program, extra than seven-hundred groups strong, and is designed to champion accomplice advancement and answer development for the Big Data ecosystem. With greater partners than some other Hadoop dealer and the handiest Hadoop company with a era certification application, Cloudera guarantees consistency, reliability, and tight integration with business enterprise environments.
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Question 14. Explain About Cloudera Search?
Cloudera Search : Provides close to real-time get right of entry to to statistics stored in or ingested into Hadoop and HBase. Search provides near real-time indexing, batch indexing, complete-textual content exploration and navigated drill-down, in addition to a simple, complete-textual content interface that calls for no SQL or programming abilities. Fully incorporated in the records-processing platform, Search makes use of the bendy, scalable, and robust storage gadget included with CDH. This removes the want to move huge facts units across infrastructures to carry out business tasks.
Question 15. How To Configure Tls Encryption For Cloudera Manager?
When you configure authentication and authorization on a cluster, Cloudera Manager Server sends touchy statistics over the network to cluster hosts, including Kerberos keytabs and configuration documents that comprise passwords. To relaxed this switch, you must configure TLS encryption among Cloudera Manager Server and all cluster hosts.
TLS encryption is also used to relaxed purchaser connections to the Cloudera Manager Admin Interface, using HTTPS.
Cloudera Manager additionally helps TLS authentication. Without certificates authentication, a malicious user can upload a host to Cloudera Manager by installing the Cloudera Manager Agent software program and configuring it to speak with Cloudera Manager Server. To prevent this, you need to install certificates on every agent host and configure Cloudera Manager Server to accept as true with those certificates.
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Question 16. Explain Impala Security?
Impala consists of a great-grained authorization framework for Hadoop, based totally at the Sentry open supply undertaking. Sentry authorization changed into delivered in Impala 1.1.0. Together with the Kerberos authentication framework, Sentry takes Hadoop protection to a new level wished for the requirements of exceptionally regulated industries along with healthcare, monetary offerings, and authorities. Impala additionally includes an auditing capability;
Impala generates the audit facts, the Cloudera Navigator product consolidates the audit records from all nodes in the cluster, and Cloudera Manager lets you filter, visualize, and convey reports.
The safety functions are divided into these broad classes:
authorization : Which users are allowed to get right of entry to which sources, and what operations are they allowed to perform? Impala is predicated at the open source Sentry mission for authorization. By default (while authorization isn't enabled), Impala does all read and write operations with the privileges of the impala consumer, that is suitable for a development/test surroundings but no longer for a comfortable manufacturing surroundings. When authorization is enabled, Impala uses the OS user ID of the user who runs impala-shell or other customer application, and pals diverse privileges with each consumer.
Authentication : How does Impala verify the identity of the person to verify that they definitely are allowed to exercising the privileges assigned to that person? Impala relies at the Kerberos subsystem for authentication.
Auditing : What operations had been attempted, and did they be triumphant or not? This characteristic provides a manner to look again and diagnose whether attempts had been made to perform unauthorized operations. You use this facts to song down suspicious interest, and to look where modifications are wished in authorization rules. The audit information produced by way of this option is gathered through the Cloudera Manager product and then offered in a person-friendly form with the aid of the Cloudera Manager product.
Question 17. What Are The Security Guidelines Of Impala?
Security Guidelines for Impala : The following are the important steps to harden a cluster running Impala towards accidents and errors, or malicious attackers seeking to get right of entry to touchy statistics
Secure the foundation account. The root consumer can tamper with the impalad daemon, read and write the statistics files in HDFS, log into different user debts, and access other system services which might be beyond the manipulate of Impala.
Restrict club in the sudoers listing (in the /and so forth/sudoers file). The customers who can run the sudo command can do a few of the equal matters as the root user.
Ensure the Hadoop ownership and permissions for Impala information files are constrained.
Ensure the Hadoop possession and permissions for Impala log documents are limited.
Ensure that the Impala net UI (available by means of default on port 25000 on each Impala node) is password-protected.
Create a policy file that specifies which Impala privileges are to be had to customers in particular Hadoop organizations (which via default map to Linux OS groups). Create the associated Linux groups the usage of the groupadd command if essential.
The Impala authorization characteristic uses the HDFS record ownership and permissions mechanism; for historical past data, see the CDH HDFS Permissions Guide. Set up users and assign them to agencies at the OS stage, corresponding to the one-of-a-kind classes of users with different get admission to levels for numerous databases, tables, and HDFS locations (URIs). Create the associated Linux users the usage of the useradd command if essential, and upload them to the perfect groups with the usermod command.
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Question 18. Explain About Configuring Encryption?
The goal of encryption is to make certain that handiest legal customers can view, use, or make a contribution to a records set. These security controls add another layer of protection in opposition to capacity threats by means of cease-customers, directors, and other malicious actors at the community. Data protection can be carried out at a number of stages within Hadoop:
OS Filesystem-stage - Encryption may be applied on the Linux working machine filesystem degree to cowl all documents in a volume. An instance of this approach is Cloudera Navigator Encrypt (previously Gazzang zNcrypt) that's to be had for Cloudera customers licensed for Cloudera Navigator. Navigator Encrypt operates at the Linux extent stage, so it is able to encrypt cluster statistics inside and outside HDFS, along with temp/spill documents, configuration files and metadata databases (for use only for information associated with a CDH cluster). Navigator Encrypt should be used with Cloudera Navigator Key Trustee Server (previously Gazzang zTrustee).
Network-stage - Encryption may be carried out to encrypt statistics just earlier than it receives sent throughout a community and to decrypt it simply after receipt. In Hadoop, this indicates insurance for information despatched from client person interfaces as well as carrier-to-carrier communication like far flung procedure calls (RPCs). This safety uses enterprise-general protocols which include TLS/SSL.
DFS-level - Encryption carried out by the HDFS consumer software program. HDFS Transparent Encryption operates on the HDFS folder degree, permitting you to encrypt a few folders and depart others unencrypted. HDFS obvious encryption can't encrypt any facts outdoor HDFS. To ensure dependable key storage (in order that records isn't misplaced), use Cloudera Navigator Key Trustee Server; the default Java keystore may be used for test purposes.
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Question 19. Explain About Cloudera Data Management?
Data control sports include auditing get right of entry to to statistics dwelling in HDFS and Hive metastores, reviewing and updating metadata, and coming across the lineage of statistics gadgets.
Cloudera Navigator is a fully included records-management and protection gadget for the Hadoop platform. Cloudera Navigator permits a huge range of stakeholders to paintings with information at scale:
Compliance businesses ought to music and guard get entry to to touchy information. They should be organized for an audit, tune who accesses facts and what are they do with it, and ensure that sensitive information is ruled and protected.
Hadoop directors and DBAs are answerable for boosting consumer productivity and cluster performance. They want to see how data is getting used and how it is able to be optimized for future workloads.
Question 20. Explain About Data Encryption?
Data Encryption - Data encryption and key management provide a vital layer of safety towards capacity threats by malicious actors on the network or in the datacenter. Encryption and key management also are necessities for meeting key compliance initiatives and making sure the integrity of your agency facts.
The following Cloudera Navigator components permit compliance companies to manipulate encryption:
Cloudera Navigator Encrypt transparently encrypts and secures statistics at relaxation without requiring modifications for your programs and guarantees there is minimum overall performance lag inside the encryption or decryption technique.
Cloudera Navigator Key Trustee Server is an business enterprise-grade digital safe-deposit container that stores and manages cryptographic keys and other protection artifacts.
Cloudera Navigator Key HSM allows Cloudera Navigator Key Trustee Server to seamlessly integrate with a hardware safety module (HSM).
Cloudera Navigator statistics control and facts encryption components may be installed independently.
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