System Administrator Interview Questions and Answers
Q1. What are the variations between a website and a workgroup?
Ans: In a site, one or extra laptop may be a server to manage the network.
On the alternative hand in a workgroup all computers are friends having no control on every different.
In a domain, person would not need an account to logon on a particular pc if an account is available at the area.
In a piece organization person needs to have an account for every pc.
In a domain, Computers may be on different local networks.
In a piece institution all computer systems desires to be a part of the equal nearby network.
Q2. What are the personal traits of a machine administrator?
Ans: System administrators are specialists at dealing with hardware and software program. They are brief with both their fingers and their head. They can work alone, but they understand when and how to communicate with others, whether to file troubles, learn facts needed to restore problems, or train personnel regarding technical problems.
Q3. What is PPP protocol?
Ans: Point to Point protocol allows verbal exchange among 2 computers over a serial cable, telephone line or different fiber optic strains. E.G. Connection between an Internet Service Provider and a bunch. PPP additionally affords authentication. PPP operates by sending Request packets and watching for Acknowledge packets that receive, reject or try to change the request. The protocol is also used to negotiate on community deal with or compression options between the nodes.
Q4. What are Ping and Tracert?
Ans: Ping and tracert are the commands used to ship statistics to a few remote computer systems to receive some statistics. Information is despatched and acquired via packets. Ping is used to check if the gadget is in community or no longer. It also offers packet misplaced records. In home windows ping command is written as ping ip _address.
Tracert is called as trace route. It is used to song or hint the direction the packet takes from the pc in which the command is given until the destination. In windows ping command is written as tracert ip_address .
Q5. What is IP Spoofing and how can it's prevented?
Ans: IP spoofing is a mechanism used by attackers to advantage unauthorized get entry to to a device. Here, the intruder sends messages to a computer with an IP address indicating that the message is coming from a trusted host. This is finished with the aid of forging the header so it carries a extraordinary address and make it appear that the packet was despatched by way of a exceptional device.
Prevention:-Packet filtering: - to allow packets with recognized codecs to go into the network Using special routers and firewalls.
Encrypting the session
Q6. What enjoy do you have with hardware components?
Ans: Installation and alternative are some of the maximum regularly executed operations with hardware. Sometimes a machine administrator might need to rebuild a hardware issue.
Q7. What is LDAP?
Ans: LDAP (Light-Weight Directory Access Protocol) determines how an item in an Active Directory must be named. LDAP is the industry general listing get admission to protocol, making Active Directory extensively accessible to management and question programs. Active Directory supports LDAPv2 and LDAPv3.
Q8. Where is the AD database stored?
Ans: The AD database is stored in C:WindowsNTDSNTDS.DIT.
Q9. What are NETBIOS and NETBEUI?
Ans: NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows 1/zero requests to be despatched to and received from a far flung computer and it hides the networking hardware from programs. NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended consumer interface. A delivery protocol designed with the aid of Microsoft and IBM is for the use on small subnets.
Q10. What are the same old port numbers for SMTP, POP3, IMAP4, RPC, LDAP, and FTP?
Ans: SMTP - 25, POP3 - one hundred ten, IMAP4 - 143, RPC - one hundred thirty five, LDAP, FTP-21, HTTP-80
Q11. What is the SYSVOL folder?
Ans: The SYSVOL folder shops the server copy of the domain’s public files that should be shared for common access and replication during a site.
All AD databases are saved in a SYSVOL folder and it’s only created in an NTFS partition. The Active Directory Database is stored in the %SYSTEM ROOT%NDTS folder.
Q12. What is Garbage collection?
Ans: Garbage series is the net defragmentation of the Active Directory which happens each 12 hours.
Q13. When can we use WDS?
Ans: Windows Deployment Services is a server function used to set up Windows working structures remotely. WDS is especially used for community-based OS installations to set up new computer systems.
Q14. Explain RSVP. How does it paintings?
Ans: Resource Reservation protocol is used to order resources throughout a network. It is used for requesting a selected Quality of Service (QoS) from the community. This is performed with the aid of sporting the request (that desires a reservation of the useful resource) of the host throughout the network. It visits each node in the community.
<>p RSVP used neighborhood modules for reservation of resources. Admission control module confirms if there are enough available sources while coverage module checks for the permission of creating a reservation. RSVP offers scalability. On a successful of completion of both tests RSVP uses the packet classifier and packet scheduler for the preferred Qos asked.
Q15. What is Frame Relay ?
Ans: Frame relay is high-velocity statistics conversation generation that operates at the bodily and information hyperlink layers of the OSI model.Frame relay uses frames for facts transmission in a network.
Q16. What are Lingering Objects?
Ans: A lingering item is a deleted AD item that also remains on the restored area controller in its nearby replica of Active Directory. They can occur when changes are made to directories after gadget backups are created.
When restoring a backup report, Active Directory normally requires that the backup record be no more than a hundred and eighty days antique. This can happen if, after the backup become made, the object become deleted on every other DC extra than one hundred eighty days in the past.
Q17. Why have to you not restore a DC that turned into sponsored up 6 months ago?
Ans: When restoring a backup document, Active Directory typically requires that the backup report be no extra than a hundred and eighty days old. If you attempt to restore a backup this is expired, you can face problems due to lingering objects.
Q18. Explain the idea of DHCP.
Ans: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is used assigning IP addresses to computer systems in a community. The IP addresses are assigned dynamically. Certainly, the use of DHCP, the laptop can have a specific IP deal with every time it's miles related to the network. In some cases the IP deal with might also alternate even when the computer is in community. This approach that DHCP rentals out the IP deal with to the laptop for a while. Clear advantage of DHCP is that the software program may be used to manage IP address rather than the administrator.
Q19. What role do traits inclusive of assertiveness and hassle fixing play inside the profession of a gadget administrator?
Ans: Analytical thinking and hassle fixing is essential to have the ability to investigate software or hardware malfunction. They also are important to be able to enhance or upgrade systems so that they match company desires. Assertiveness additionally performs a function due to the fact administrators need to make decisions. They determine on answers, security measures, and things like device enhancements.
Q20. What are principal Email Servers and that are their ports?
Ans: Email servers can be of types:
Incoming Mail Server (POP3, IMAP, HTTP)
The incoming mail server is the server associated with an email cope with account. There can not be multiple incoming mail server for an e mail account. In order to down load your emails, you should have the precise settings configured in your e mail consumer program.
Outgoing Mail Server (SMTP)
Most outgoing mail servers use SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) for sending emails. The outgoing mail server can belong on your ISP or to the server where you setup your e mail account.
The important email ports are:
POP3 – port 110
IMAP – port 143
SMTP – port 25
HTTP – port eighty
Secure SMTP (SSMTP) – port 465
Secure IMAP (IMAP4-SSL) – port 585
IMAP4 over SSL (IMAPS) – port 993
Secure POP3 (SSL-POP) – port 995