SAP FIORI Interview Questions and Answers
Q1. What is SAP Fiori?
Ans: SAP Fiori is another client experience (UX) for SAP programming and applications. It gives a bunch of utilizations that are utilized in customary business capabilities like work endorsements, monetary applications, computation applications and different self-administration applications.
Or then again
SAP Fiori is the new client experience (UX) for SAP programming that applies present day plan standards. SAP arrangements, like the SAP S/4HANA, SAP Business Suite and SAP SuccessFactors are utilizing or intending to utilize the SAP Fiori UX to give a customized, versatile and basic client experience.
Q2. What are the different arrangement steps in SAP Fiori?
Ans: Configurations of SAP Fiori Apps are partitioned into two sections: Configuration of Transaction Apps and Fact sheets, Configuration of Analytical Apps.
Prior to designing anything, the total framework for SAP Fiori applications should be introduced. Whenever that is finished there will be exercises to arrange on back-end and front-end servers.
Q3. Note down the means that are expected to arrange SAP Fiori Transactional Apps?
Stage 1 Configuring SAP Web Dispatcher indicates steering rules to characterize which URL is sent to which framework is finished for both Transactional Apps and Factsheets.
Stage 2 just should be designed for Factsheets. On the off chance that we simply need to design Transactional Apps we can skip stage 2.
Stage 3 is designing the front-end server and this is finished for both Transactional Apps and Factsheets. At significant level we really want to arrange −
SAP NetWeaver Gateway
The Central UI Add-Ons (Launchpad Configuration)
Item Specific Add-Ons
Stage 4 is designing the back-end server and this is finished for both Transactional Apps and Factsheets.
Seeing from a significant level - Roles, Users and Authorizations
Note − Transactional Apps can run on any DB though the Factsheets should run on SAP Hana.
Q4. Note down the means that are expected to design SAP Fiori Analytical Apps?
Ans: Step 1 Configure SAP Web Dispatcher −
Should be arranged to determine directing standards expressing which URL is sent to which demand
Arranging validation and SSO should be finished in the HANA data set.
Stage 3 arranging the front-end server:
Arranging NetWeaver Gateway
Focal UI additional items
Item unambiguous additional items
Stage 4 (Only required for Smart business applications):
Empower client admittance to KPI information
Arrange navigational focuses for KPI lists
Q5. KPI structure is introduced for which of the accompanying Apps?
Ans: Analytical applications and the SAP Smart Business applications share the arrangement of HANA XS motor and KPI Framework just (in Smart Business Apps). After arrangement of SAP Fiori System Landscape with SAP Hana XS motor we should be following the KPI modeler on front-end server and separate SAP Smart Business Products on SAP Hana server.
Q6. To empower remote logon for clients who utilize similar client information in both SAP NetWeaver Gateway host and SAP framework, which association type should be designed?
Ans: To characterize a trust connection between SAP framework and SAP NetWeaver passage have by designing SAP framework to be believing framework and NetWeaver entryway host to be the confided in framework. It empowers remote logon for clients who utilize similar client information in both SAP NetWeaver Gateway host and SAP framework.
To arrange SAP framework as the confiding in framework:
Make a RFC objective for use in the trust setup.
Characterize framework to be believing framework utilizing exchange SMT1.
Arrange the framework to make and acknowledge affirmation tickets from SAP NetWeaver Gateway have utilizing SSO2 wizard.
To arrange SAP NetWeaver Gateway have as confided in framework:
Make a RFC objective for speaking with the confiding in SAP framework.
Q7. Make sense of SAP NetWeaver Gateway Embedded Hub organization in SAP Fiori?
In Embedded Hub Deployment: NetWeaver door is conveyed on same server as the Business Suite. So various Business Suite frameworks expects Gateway to be arranged on numerous occasions. It isn't suggested by SAP particularly for clients with different back closes.
No extra independent NetWeaver Gateway framework is required. It is typically utilized for sandbox purposes as it were.
Q8. To empower correspondence between the front-end ABAP and back-end ABAP server, which correspondence type is utilized?
Confided in RFC
Believed RFC gives information from backend Business suite to the applications. SAP Business suite is available in ABAP back-end server with every one of its modules-ERP, CRM, SRM, SCM. Fiori Apps are accessible in ABAP frontend server in Fiori Launchpad.
Q9. Exchange Apps, Factsheets and Analytical Apps require which of the SAP framework to run?
Ans: Transaction Apps are just applications that don't need to run on Hana framework. They can run on any Database. All factsheets, Analytical applications and Small Business Apps run on SAP Hana. Just Fact sheet requires Search Models. Just Analytical Apps requires Hana XS Engine and KPI Framework is required for Smarts Business Apps.
Q10. What is the capability of SAP Web Dispatcher in SAP Fiori design?
Ans: SAP Web Dispatcher (Reverse intermediary) is section point for HTTP(s) demand in SAP Fiori Architecture. It can acknowledge or dismiss associations according to client demand.
Q11. What are the parts of SAP Hana expanded application administrations?
Ans: SAP Hana XS motor contains 2 parts Hana Live App Content and SMART Business parts with KPI modeler. Inside Hana Live App Content VDM reuse content exist.
Q12. What is MVC?
Ans: The Model-view-regulator design characterizes space displaying, GUI of use and info and activities in light of gadgets. MVC approach characterizes in SAP UI5 has following focuses:
A scaffold among view and information of the applications and it acknowledges the solicitation from view and answers likewise. It doesn't rely upon any of classes.
It deals with the presentation of data (GUI of the application) and it relies upon Model.
It closes the information given by gadgets and imparts to show/view to make a legitimate move. It likewise relies upon model. View and Controller have 1:1 relationship. Regulator engages client demands got from View.
Q13. In UI5 information restricting backings, what are the different model executions?
Ans: UI5 information restricting backings three different model executions −
XML model backings XML information and it upholds two-way restricting.
OData model backings OData agreeable information. It makes OData demands and handles reactions. It incorporates the open source library dataJS to deal with OData solicitations and information. It upholds two-way exploratory restricting.
Q14. What is utilization of OData convention?
Ans: OData is a convention used to trade information on web and was initially evolved by Microsoft.It depends on Atom Publishing and Atom Syndication norms, which thus, depend on XML and HTTPS(S).
The Atom distributing design doesn't determine how Data ought to be encoded with in a feed thusly it neglects to give self-depicting messages and neglects to be completely RESTful. OData expands Atom by giving a metadata portrayal of message.
OData gives definition to:
Relationship as well as Navigation way between passages.
Custom way of behaving.
OData likewise adds an elective portrayal of information in the arrangement of JSON.
Q15. In NetWeaver Gateway Central center organization, what are the various situations for improvement? Which one is liked and when?
Situation A: Central Hub Deployment — Development in SAP Business Suite Backend System
It empowers to reuse information put away in the SAP Business Suite framework effectively since improvement happens in the framework in which information is put away.
To empower correspondence between the SAP NetWeaver Gateway framework and the SAP Business Suite backend framework, you should introduce IW_BEP in the backend framework.
The existence pattern of SAP NetWeaver Gateway content is directed by the recurrence of updates in the SAP Business Suite backend framework.
Requires separate NetWeaver Gateway framework
Situation B: Central Hub Deployment — Development in SAP NetWeaver Gateway System
Harmless arrangement situation for SAP Business Suite backend framework.
The existence pattern of SAP NetWeaver Gateway content is approximately coupled to the lifecycle of the SAP Business Suite backend framework.
To empower outside access and satisfy security prerequisites, you can find the SAP NetWeaver Gateway framework in a neutral ground (DMZ).
You want just a solitary establishment of the SAP NetWeaver Gateway Add-Ons inside the framework scene.
Requires separate NetWeaver Gateway framework.
The SAP NetWeaver Gateway content execution can't utilize most of improvement objects in the SAP Business Suite backend framework. Subsequently we really want to make duplicates of designs and information spaces.
We should pick this organization situation in the event that we can't introduce the SAP NetWeaver Gateway Add-Ons in the SAP Business Suite backend framework. We probably won't have the option to introduce Add-Ons in the backend framework because of reasons of safety, steadiness, or contradiction (because of framework discharge).
Q16. What is installed center Deployment and where it is utilized?
Implanted center Deployment — Development in SAP Business Suite Backend System
Simple reuse of content in SAP Business Suite backend framework. We can reuse structures from the backend framework and access neighborhood business rationale.
Decreased all out cost of possession (TCO) as we don't need a different SAP NetWeaver Gateway framework.
The existence pattern of SAP NetWeaver Gateway content is directed by the recurrence of updates in the SAP Business Suite backend framework.
We should coordinate the consuming application or framework with the SAP Business Suite framework on a point-by-point premise. Cross-framework piece isn't fitting.
Focal SAP NetWeaver Gateway content isn't accessible. Backend-explicit substance is utilized in the SAP Business Suite backend framework.
Assuming numerous SAP Business Suite frameworks are utilized Gateway would need to be designed on different occasions.
Note − Embedded center sending isn't suggested by SAP particularly for a client with numerous backend. This situation is utilized for sandbox purposes as it were.
Q17. How would you recognize a Workflow layout in SAP Fiori?
Ans: Workflow layouts are prefixed with "WS".
Q18. To analyze work process blunders, which exchange do you utilize?
Ans: SWI2_DIAG → to analyze work process mistakes.
Q19. What is the utilization of characterizing work process situations in Workflow motor?
Ans: Workflow situation totals at least one work process errands in work process motor and is addressed by a solitary section in the buyer application. The help/IWPGW/TASKPROOCESSING is given in the norm.
Q20. Which administration is utilized by SAP Fiori Launchpad originator to peruse and appoint transport demand?
Ans:/UI2/TRANSPORT-Used by SAP Fiori Launchpad originator to peruse and relegate transport demand.
Q21. How information stream occurs in SAP Fiori Launchpad? Make sense of the means.
Ans: Sequence of steps −
Platform Designer - Add an index, add a gathering
Target planning - semantic article, activity
PFCG - Catalog, bunch
Q22. To uncover our Gateway administration to outside world, where do a passage should be made?
Ans: In request to uncover our Gateway administration to outside world, we should make a section in the Service Catalog on which ever server is going about as the Gateway center.
Q23. What are the different RFC approval objects in SAP Fiori?
Ans: Authorization Object S_RFCACL
Approval check for RFC clients, especially for confided in frameworks
This approval object contains the accompanying fields:
RFC_SYSID: ID of the calling framework or the area of the satellite framework.
RFC_CLIENT: Client of the calling framework.
RFC_USER: ID of the calling client.
RFC_EQUSER: Flag that shows whether the client can be called by a client with a similar ID (Y = Yes, N = No)
RFC_TCODE: Calling exchange code.
RFC_INFO: Additional data from the calling framework (as of now inert).
Q24. For what reason do we really want a framework nom de plume If GW_CORE and IW_BEP parts are introduced on a similar ABAP framework?
Ans: You really want to know the framework assumed name of the ABAP framework in which you created and designed the Gateway Service. There are two prospects here −
Assuming the GW_CORE and IW_BEP parts are introduced on a similar ABAP framework, then the framework moniker will presumably be "Nearby".
On the off chance that they are introduced on various frameworks, in spite of the fact that framework monikers can be any name you like, they for the most part follow the naming show of <SID>_<Client> So the framework nom de plume for associating with client 200 of framework C11 would by and large be C11_200.
Anyway this is a show, as opposed to a standard.
Q25. What is Launchpad creator apparatus? For what reason do we want it?
Ans: We can utilize SAP Fiori Launchpad originator for designing and making gatherings and indexes which can then be gotten to from SAP Fiori Lauchpad which is a solitary section highlight all applications. We can look as of late sent off applications through search capacity of Launchpad. Tiles which are accessible on Fiori Launchpad landing page are arranged utilizing Launchpad Designer Tool.
Q26. What are the design undertakings that should be performed on Front End server according to various application types?
Ans: We want to play out specific setup undertakings on front end server which are intended for application type. We want to Activate OData Services for conditional applications and Factsheets however not for Analytical applications. For scientific applications we really want to arrange admittance to SAP HANA information.
Q27. What are the different application sent off tile types in SAP Fiori?
Static: It shows predefined static substance (text, symbol).
Dynamic: It shows numbers that can be perused powerfully.
News Tile: Flips through news messages as per the design of the tile.
KPI Tile: It shows KPI's continuously.
Q28. What are the different OData administrations that are expected for SAP Fiori Launchpad?
Ans: OData administrations must be empowered in SAP Net Weaver passage to lay out planning between specialized OData name and the comparing back-end administration. To arrangement SAP Fiori Launchpad and Launchpad creator, we need to enact 5 explicit OData Services.
Q29. What are the various choices in SAP Fiori Launchpad plan?
Setup Layer: Contains all happy as conveyed to clients including interpretation.
Customization Layer: Customers change content for all clients in the framework. We can utilize CUST layer for testing or different reasons. Content is movable through redoing demands by clients. After customization, content is decoupled from setup layer and no programmed synchronization after changes to conveyed layer.
Q30. What is the utilization of PFCG job SAP_UI2_USER_700?
Ans: The Launchpad client should have the PFCG job SAP_UI2_USER_700 alloted. With this job the client can run the SAP Fiori Launchpad on the Personalization level and has approval to execute the accompanying OData administrations:
Q31. The extra parts in back end that call for no down investment for establishment are known as?
Ans: Product explicit UI Add-Ons:
ERP − UI for EHP 7 for SAP ERP 6.0
SRM − UI for EHP3 for SAP SRM 7.0
SCM − SAP SNC USABILITY 1.0
CRM − UI for EHP3 for SAP CRM 7.0
PORTF and PROJ MGMT − UI for SAP PORTF PROJ MGMT 6.0
GRC − UI for SAP ACCESS CONTROL 10.1 SP3
Q32. What is the utilization of SAP Solution Manager and Application Lifecycle Management?
Ans: SAP Solution Manager is the standard stage for Application Lifecycle Management (ALM), and assumes an unequivocal part inside the ALM devices. Other than giving SAP usefulness itself, SAP Solution Manager coordinates different instruments to guarantee an exhaustive methodology.
Q33. What is the utilization of UI Theme Designer? What are the advantages?
Ans: Using UI subject originator you can make your own topics to adjust the visual appearance of utilizations.
One single instrument for theming and marking SAP's key UIs −
Apply your corporate marking and shift focus over to applications worked with SAP UI innovations. The UI subject creator is a program based instrument for cross-theming situations.
The apparatus is focused on at various client gatherings, including engineers, visual originators, and directors.
Key Features and Benefits:
Program based, graphical WYSIWYG supervisor.
Change the benefits of theming boundaries and promptly perceive what it means for the representation of the chose see page.
Work in review pages.
Select underlying sneak peak pages to see what your custom subject will resemble when it is applied to an application.
Application sneak peaks (for instance, Purchase Order Approval, SAP Fiori Launchpad)
Control sneak peaks:
Various degrees of theming.
Fast theming (essential cross-innovation subject settings)
Master theming (innovation explicit topic settings)
Manual LESS or CSS altering
Variety range for reuse.
Determine a bunch of boundaries with the primary variety values characterizing your corporate marking.
Make one reliable subject that applies to different SAP UI clients and advances.
SAPUI5 standard libraries (counting SAP Fiori applications and SAP Fiori platform)
Brought together Rendering advances (like Web Dynpro ABAP and Floorplan Manager)
SAP NetWeaver Business Client:
Multiplatform and Multi UI innovation support.
Low Total Cost of Ownership.
Q34. For compose admittance to the UI Theme Designer (make, update, erase subjects), which approval item ought to be relegated?
Ans: Authorization object:/UI5/THEME
/UI5/THMID (Theme Id):* = all topics
To have the option to utilize the UI Theme Designer, which Internet Communication Framework ICF hubs ought to be actuated?
To have the option to utilize the UI Theme Designer, Activate the accompanying Internet Communication Framework (ICF) administration hubs:
To have the option to utilize SAP UI5 and NWBC review pages, following ICF administrations should be initiated:
Q35. How might you download recently made subjects that are distributed?
Ans: You can utilize exchange/UI5/THEME_TOOL to download recently made subject and you will find css in one of those organizers.
You can likewise ship subjects starting with one framework then onto the next (Eg: from Test to Production framework) involving the instrument for Customer Themes Maintenance.
Begin the apparatus utilizing exchange:/UI5/THEME_TOOL
Explore to the subject you need to move.
Select Transport and pick.
Q36. How would you expand an OData administration (Gateway Content Layer) in SAP Gateway?
Ans: Transaction code SE11 is ABAP word reference. By utilizing this exchange code, you can make, change and show table sections and designs. At the underlying screen, you can put any tables or designs to see, alter or try and make another one. Exchange code SE11 is typically utilized an ABAP developer.
SAP Gateway Service Builder (exchange SEGW)) is a plan time climate, which gives engineers a simple to-utilize set of instruments for making administrations. The Code-based OData Channel consumes it and supports engineers all through the improvement life pattern of a help.
SE 80 is an instrument to create and explore projects and dd-obj.
SE80 Object Navigator → implies every one of the articles will be accessible there. In se80 as well as survey the articles connected with programming and classes, there are more honors to view, for example, a few different vaults like emulate, object store, object program what not.
Q37. What parts needs to rethink while expanding Gateway layer of SAP Fiori Application?
Ans: IW_BEP on Business Suite
IW_FND on Gateway Layer
Q38. What is the utilization of component.js document in UI extensibility?
Ans: The arrangement is put away in the component.js record of the custom application. The part of the custom application needs to acquire from the principal part of the first application. To make the area of the first application or part known to SAPUI5, utilizing register Module Path might be essential. The setup in the redoing segment contains the expansion metadata and depicts the items that are supplanted or expanded.
Q39. What is a section and perspectives in SAP UI5?
Ans: Fragments are bits of a UI without their own regulator. The name of each perspective on section is significant. A part should be named as <NAME>.fragment.xml and a view <NAME>.view.xml
SAPUI5 Views: Views are only the application pages. We characterize our UI by making Views. Sees is framed or made by involving at least one Controls in it say Page,SimpleForm,Dialog,Label,Input and so on. Each view has its own regulator.
SAPUI5 Fragments: Fragments are the bits of UI very much like SAPUI5 Views. At the point when we really want to utilize some comparative UI parts commonly in our application/sees we make Fragments of those UI parts since Fragments are reusable and are light weight contrasted with VIews and Controls. Parts are put away with in the actual application and can be utilized by that application as it were. Pieces are characterized as View just and calling Views regulator is imparted to Fragment as Fragments are not having their own regulators.
Q40. In the event that Customization doesn't run as expected, is it conceivable to debilitate all customization by giving a design?
Ans: If a Customization doesn't run as expected, all customization can be crippled by giving a solitary design. In help circumstance, this should be possible by setting a breakpoint from the get-go in sap-ui-core.js and afterward executing the accompanying code in the Console:
-window["sap-ui-config"]["xx-disableCustomizing"] = valid;
For security reason this setting is beyond the realm of possibilities utilizing a URL boundary.
To dump the total extensibility information, utilize the accompanying order in the program Console:
Subsequently, an article is returned in the Console which contains the redoing setup, organized by sort of customization and view name.
Q41. To coordinate factsheets with geological guides, association is set up between the ABAP back-end server and the guide supplier. What is correspondence channel?
For truth sheets with incorporated geological guides, topographical arranges and address information are moved from the ABAP back-end server to the guide supplier utilizing HTTP or HTTPS.
To guarantee secrecy and respectability of information, we emphatically suggest safeguarding HTTP associations by utilizing Transport Layer Security (TLS) or Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
Q42. What is SAP HANA XS motor? The way things are utilized for Business suite and KPI?
Ans: For Analytical applications you want SAP Hana as fundamental information base, no exemptions. SAP Fiori influences.
XS motor by utilizing virtual information models. Inside XS motor there are 2 parts: the HANA Live App content for particular business suite and Smart business part with the KPI modeler. Inside the HANA live satisfied the VDM reuse content exists which can be adjusted.
In underneath Pic, you have ABAP front end server which contains the UI Add-Ons for separate items utilized, NetWeaver Gateway with OData enablement, the focal UI add-on and the KPI structure. These front end parts have perused admittance to the backend information through a confided in RFC association.
Q43. What is VDM in HANA Live? What are the various sorts of perspectives in VDM?
Ans: A virtual information model (VDM) is an organized portrayal of HANA data set sees utilized in SAP HANA Live for SAP Business Suite and keeps predictable demonstrating guidelines.
It gives direct admittance to SAP business information utilizing standard SQL or OData demands. Business information is uncovered through obvious data set sees, working straightforwardly on the tables of the SAP Business Suite frameworks and changing them into predictable and effectively reasonable perspectives.
VDMs permit you to get to information in one part and use it in one more without continuing the information a subsequent time.
A Virtual information model comprises of the accompanying sorts of perspectives:
Inquiry sees: are intended for direct utilization by an insightful application (in view of HTML5, for example) or a nonexclusive scientific device (for instance, BusinessObjects apparatuses). They are dependably the top view in an order of perspectives and are not intended for reuse in different perspectives. Notwithstanding, the virtual information model likewise incorporates inquiry perspectives to help (grandstand) applications in light of the virtual information model.The connection point of the question sees is kept stable. The name of a question view closes with Query and gives yield fields in an organization consumable by UIs.
Reuse sees: are the hearts of the virtual information model. They uncover the business information in a very much organized, steady and understandable way, covering all pertinent business information in SAP Business Suite frameworks. They are intended for reuse by different perspectives and should not be consumed straight by scientific apparatuses.
Confidential perspectives: exemplify specific SQL changes on one or a few data set tables or significantly different perspectives. They are not delegated reuse sees, as they probably won't convey clear business semantics, however are fairly expected to be reused in different perspectives. They are tantamount to subroutines or (private) techniques in programming dialects. A confidential view might be founded on data set tables, other confidential perspectives, or on reuse sees.
Esteem help sees (VHVs): offer the benefit list for a particular business element that is utilized in a worth assist in a question with review. Applicable business elements are determined by an identifier or code. A limit of one VHV is characterized for every business element per bundle. A VHV is incorporated either in a hidden bundle to the business question sees that utilize it, or in a similar bundle. In SAP HANA, for every fundamental bundle a particular VHV exists for a particular business substance.
Q44. Which directing standards must be characterized in SAP HANA studio to arrange Web Dispatcher to utilize HTTPS demand?
Ans: Three steering rules should be characterized in SAP NWG framework:
Two directing principles should be characterized in the HANA studio:
Q45. In SAP NetWeaver 7.31 ep1, what jobs ought to be allocated to Fiori Launchpad executive?
Ans: The Launchpad manager should have the PFCG job SAP_UI2_ADMIN allocated.
SAP_UI2_ADMIN is a composite job containing the accompanying delivery subordinate jobs −
SAP_UI2_ADMIN_700 for SAP NetWeaver 7.0
SAP_UI2_ADMIN_702 for SAP NetWeaver 7.0 upgrade bundle 2
SAP_UI2_ADMIN_731 for SAP NetWeaver 7.0 upgrade bundle 3 and SAP NetWeaver 7.3 improvement bundle 1
Q46. To arrange Enterprise search in back end, what is significant perquisite for this?
Ans: To arrange Enterprise search in back end, we probably Embedded Search Technology arrangement.
Q47. What are the different confirmation techniques that can be designed in SAP Fiori for inner and outside organization correspondence?
Ans: By executing SAP Single Sign-On, your applications become consequently accessible after only one starting client confirmation at the clients Windows work area, with no requirement for additional sign on strategies.
Kerberos innovation is the technique for decision in intranet situations for SSO. It just re-involves your Windows space validation for single sign-on.
X.509 endorsements give a feasible choice to making a protected SSO framework in the event that you're thinking about stretching out single sign-on to extranet or cross-organization situations.
Q48. What are the parts that are arranged in SAP Front End Server?
Ans: Configure ABAP Front-end server incorporates Configure SAP NetWeaver Gateway, Configure the Central UI Add-On, Configure SAP Fiori Launchpad.
Q49. What are the parts that are arranged as a feature of setup of KPI information?
Ans: Configure admittance to KPI information (SAP Smart Business just) incorporates - empowers client admittance to KPI information, KPI modeler, Configure route focuses for Kpi's.
Q50. Make sense of SAP NetWeaver Gateway Central Hub arrangement in SAP Fiori?
Ans: In NetWeaver Gateway Central Hub arrangement: UI layer and SAP NetWeaver door is contained in ABAP Front-end server. The ABAP back end server contains business rationale and back end information. Isolating business rationale and back end information from UI layer has beneath benefits:
Single Point of upkeep for UI issues, for example, program support and refreshed adaptation of SAP UI5 libraries.
Focal spot for theming and marking SAP Fiori Apps.
Directing and creation of various backend frameworks is upheld.
Single Point of admittance to backend frameworks and improved security in light of no immediate admittance to backend framework.
SAP suggests Central Hub sending particularly for Productive climate. Separate NetWeaver Gateway framework is required.