Interview Questions.

Basic Accounting and Financial Accounting Interview Questions and Answers


Basic Accounting and Financial Accounting Interview Questions and Answers

Q1. Why did you select accounting as your career?

Ans: Well, I was quite excellent in accounting at some point of but in my masters, when I were given difference I determined to adopt this subject as a career.

Q2. Do you have got any expert enjoy of this discipline?

Ans: Yes, I even have labored as an accountant at  one of a kind places.

Q3. Did you operate accounting programs at your preceding agencies or opt for operating manually??

Ans: Yes, I have used Advanced Business Solutions and AME Accounting Software in my preceding jobs.

Q4. Can you name every other accounting application?

Ans: Yes, I am acquainted with CGram Software, Financial Force, Microsoft Accounting Professional, Microsoft Dynamics AX and Microsoft Small Business Financials.

Q5. Which accounting software you decide upon most and why?

Ans: I think all are precise even though however Microsoft Accounting Professional is first-rate as it offers dependable and fast processing of accounting transactions that saves time and will increase skillability.

Q6. What is the abbreviation for the accounting terms debit and credit score?

Ans: Debit abbreviation is “dr” and credit abbreviation is “cr”.

Q7. How many forms of business transactions are there in accounting?

Ans: There are two types of transactions in accounting i.E. Revenue and capital.

Q8. What is balance sheet?

Ans: It is a declaration that states all the liabilities and belongings of the enterprise at positive point.

Q9. Have you ever heard about TDS, what it's miles?

Ans: Yes, TDS abbreviates Tax Deduction at Source.

Q10. In balance sheet, wherein do you display TDS?

Ans: It is shown on the assets phase, right after the top modern-day asset.

Q11. Do you have got any concept approximately Service Tax or Excise?

Ans: It is a kind of hidden tax that is blanketed in the carrier supplied by means of the carrier issuer and paid by means of the carrier receiver.

Q12. Do you suspect there's any distinction between inactive and dormant debts?

Ans: Yes, both are exceptional phrases in accounting. Inactive accounts approach that bills have been closed and will no longer be used in destiny as nicely. While, dormant money owed are those who are not useful today however can be used in destiny.

Q13. What is tally accounting?

Ans: It is the software program used for accounting in small commercial enterprise and shops for managing recurring accounting transactions.

Q14. How can you outline departmental accounting?

Ans: It is a form of accounting in which separate account is created for departments. It is managed separately in addition to proven independently in the balance sheet.

Q15. Define fictitious property?

Ans: These are the belongings that can't be proven or touch. Fictitious property can most effective be felt such as proper will, rights etc.

Q16. By saying, perpetual or periodic inventory device; what will we imply?

Ans: In the primary one i.E. The perpetual inventory machine, the bills are adjusted on chronic basis. In the periodic inventory machine, the bills are adjusted periodically.

Q17. In accounting, how do you define premises?

Ans: Premises confer with fixed assets which might be shown inside the stability sheet.

Q18. In accounting, VAT abbreviates what?

Ans: VAT approach Value Added Tax.

Q19. Do you own any information about accounting standards?

Ans: Yes, as per my knowledge there are general 33 accounting requirements published so far by way of ICAI. The purpose of these standards is to put in force same regulations and practices in any country.

Q20. What is ICAI?

Ans: It is the abbreviation of Institute of Chartered Accountants in India.

Q21. How can you provide an explanation for the fundamental accounting equation?

Ans: We recognize that accounting is all approximately belongings, liabilities and capital. Therefore, the accounting equation is:

Assets = Liabilities + Owners Equity.

Q22. Define Executive accounting?

Ans: It is a sort of accounting this is mainly designed for the commercial enterprise that offers offerings to customers.

Q23. Define Public accounting?

Ans: Public accounting offers audits and CPAs to study employer economic records to make certain duty. It is for fashionable public.

Q24. What is a CPA?

Ans: CPA stands for Certified Public Accountant. To become a CPA, one ought to should do many other qualifications as well. It is a qualification with one hundred fifty hour requirement; it way that one ought to complete a hundred and fifty credit hours at any accredited university.

Q25. What do you suspect is bank reconciliation assertion?

Ans: A reconciliation statement is prepared while the passbook balance differs from the cashbook balance.

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Q26. Differentiate Public and Private Accounting?

Ans: Public accounting is a kind of accounting this is completed through one enterprise for another company. Private accounting is executed to your very own corporation.

Q27. What is project implementation?

Ans: Project implementation includes six steps in total such as:

Identify Need

Generate and Screen Ideas

Conduct Feasible Study

Develop the Project

Implement the Project

Control the Project

Q28. Do you think Accounting Standards are obligatory and why?

Ans: Yes, I do trust that accounting standards play a totally critical function to prepare top best and accurate financial reviews. It guarantees reliability and relevance in financial reviews.

Q29. Can you call unique branches of accounting?

Ans: There are three branches of accounting named as “Financial Accounting”, “Management Accounting” and “Cost Accounting”.

Q30. Differentiate Accounting and Auditing?

Ans: Accounting is all approximately recording every day commercial enterprise activities while auditing is the checking that whether or not these kinds of events were mentioned down successfully or not.

Q31. Define twin aspect term in accounting?

Ans: As the name implies, the dual issue idea states that each transaction has two sides. For example, while you purchase something, you deliver the cash and get the element. Similarly, whilst you sale something, you lose the factor and gets the cash. So this getting and dropping is basically  aspects of each transaction.

Q32.  What do we mean through buy go back in accounting?

Ans: It is the term added in the statistics for every defective or unsatisfactory exact again lower back to its dealer.

Q33. Define the term cloth statistics in accounting?

Ans: Material facts are the payments or any record that will become the bottom of every account book. It method that each one the ones documents, on which account ebook is prepared, are referred to as cloth records.

Q34. Have you ever prepared MIS reports and what are these?

Ans: Yes, I even have organized few MIS reviews at some point of my previous jobs. MIS reports are created to identify the efficiency of any branch of a agency.

Q35. Define organization’s payable cycle?

Ans: It is the time required by the company to pay all its account payables.

Q36. Define retail banking?

Ans: It is a kind of banking that entails a retail purchaser. These clients are the regular humans and not any organizational clients.

Q37. How tons arithmetic understanding is vital or required in accounting?

Ans: Not a whole lot knowledge however fundamental mathematical background is needed in accounting for operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and department.

Q38. Define bills receivable?

Ans: All varieties of change payments, bonds and other securities owned through a merchant that is payable to him are stated as payments receivable.

Q39. Define depreciation and its sorts?

Ans: By depreciation we mean that a value of an asset is reducing as it's miles in use. It has  sorts such as “Straight Line Method” and “Written Down Value Method”.

Q40: Differentiate among consignor and consignee?

Ans: Consigner is the proprietor of the goods or you may say he's the person that gives you the goods to the consignee. The consignee is the individual that receives the goods.

Q41. Define balancing in accounting?

Ans: Balancing way to equate both aspects of the T-account i.E. The debit and credit score aspects of a T-account ought to be same/balanced.

Q42. How lots facts know-how is important or required in accounting?

Ans: You have to be very good at statistics in case you want to do well in accounting. Otherwise, with minimal know-how you can not manage your day to day transactions correctly in accounting.

Q43. Define Scrap cost in accounting?

Ans: It is the residual value of an asset. The residual value is the fee that any asset holds after its predicted lifestyles time.

Q44. Define Marginal Cost?

Ans: Suppose you need to produce a further unit of output. The predicted cost of extra inputs to provide that output is certainly the marginal value.

Q45.Define Partitioning in accounting?

Ans: It is a kind of agencies made on the basis of same responses through a device.

Q46. Differentiate among provision and reserve?

Ans: Provisions are the liabilities or the predicted gadgets together with depreciation. You can say provisions are costs. Reserves are the income of any business enterprise and a part of that profit is placed returned to the business to maintain it sustainable in difficult instances of a agency.

Q47. Define Offset accounting?

Ans: Offset accounting is one which decreases the internet quantity of another account to create a internet balance.

Q48. Define overhead in terms of accounting?

Ans: It is the indirect expenditure of a organization along with salaries, lease dues and so forth.

Q49. Define alternate payments?

Ans: We realize that each one sorts of transactions need to be documented. The exchange payments are the files, generated in opposition to each transaction.

Q50. Define fair cost accounting?

Ans: As in keeping with honest price accounting, a agency has to reveal the fee of all of its belongings in terms of price on balance sheet on which that asset can be bought.

Q51. Explain what's compound journal entry?

Ans: A compound magazine entry is much like different accounting access wherein there's a couple of debit, multiple credit, or more than one of both debits and credit. It is largely a combination of several easy magazine entries.

Q52. What are the accounting activities which can be often concerned in compound entries?

Ans: The accounting events which are often involved in compound entries are;

Record multiple line objects in a supplier bill that address to extraordinary expenses

Record all financial institution deductions related to a financial institution reconciliation

Record all deduction and payments associated with a payroll

Record the account receivable and income taxes associated with a purchaser bill

Q53. Mention the types of money owed concerned in double access e book-keeping?

Ans:Double access e book-maintaining entails 5 kinds of bills,

Income accounts

Expense bills

Asset money owed

Liability money owed

Capital money owed

Q54: Mention what are the policies for debit and credit for extraordinary money owed to growth the quantity on your commercial enterprise debts?

Ans: The regulations for debit and credit score for extraordinary bills,

for a capital account, you credit to increase it and debit to decrease it

for an asset account, you debit to increase it and credit score to decrease it

for a legal responsibility account, you credit score to boom it and debit to decrease it

for an rate account, you debit to boom it, and credit to decrease it

for an earnings account, you credit to increase it and debit to decrease it

Q55. List out the Stages of Double Entry System?


Recording of transactions in the journal

Posting of magazine access in to the respective ledger debts after which making ready a trial balance

Preparing final money owed and last of books of bills

Q56. Mention what is the downside of double access machine?

Ans: The disadvantage of double entry machine,

If there may be any compensatory errors, it's far hard to find out via this machine

This machine desires extra clerical labour

It is difficult to find the mistakes if the errors are inside the transactions recorded within the books

It isn't top-rated to disclose all of the facts of a transaction, which isn't well recorded within the magazine

Q57. Mention what is General ledger account?

Ans: The General ledger account is an account where the employer records all of the information for its numerous prices and profits sorts into separate money owed.  Such that every one the debits and credit touching on that specific kind of transaction can be entered in a single vicinity and kept balanced.

Q58. What is the overall classification of bills that typically ledger account involve?

Ans:The preferred classification of accounts that usually ledger account involves are

Assets- Cash, Accounts Receivable

Liabilities- Accounts Payable, Loans Payable

Stockholders’ fairness- Common Stock

Operating revenues- Revenues through Sales

Operating costs- Rent Expense, Salaries Expense

Non-working sales and gains- Investment Income, advantage on Disposal of Equipment

Non-working sales and losses- Interest Expense, Loss on Disposal of Equipment

Q59. Mention what are matters will not be covered in bank reconciliation statement?

Ans: In a financial institution reconciliation statement, following component may be excluded.

Direct bills made through financial institution not entered in Cash e-book

Cheques deposited but not cleared

Cheques dishonoured not recorded in cash book

Wrong debits given by using financial institution

Bank Charges or Interst debited via bank

Banks direct fee no longer entered in Cash book

Q60. Under the accrual foundation of accounting, while revenues are pronounced within the accounting period?

Ans: When service or items have been added, then sales are suggested inside the accounting duration.

Q61. Under what type of account does the unearned revenues fall?

Ans: The unearned revenues falls underneath “Liability” account.

Q62. Mention whether the account “Cash” could be credited or debited, whilst a corporation will pay a invoice?

Ans: The account “Cash” will be credited when a employer pays a invoice.

Q63. Mention what is belongings minus liabilities?

Ans: Assets minus liabilities is same to owners’ fairness or stockholders fairness.

Q64. Entries to revenues bills which include Service Revenues are usually?

Ans: Entries to sales accounts inclusive of Service Revenues commonly is going into credit score side.

Q65. Explain what is the distinction between gathered depreciation and depreciation expense?

Ans: The distinction between gathered depreciation and depreciation fee is that

Accumulated depreciation: It is the overall quantity of depreciation that has been taken on a employer’s belongings up to the date of the stability sheet

Depreciation price: It is the amount of depreciation this is suggested at the income announcement. Basically, it's miles the amount that corresponds only to the time frame indicated in the heading of the earnings assertion.

Q66. List out some of the examples for liability bills?

Ans: Some of the examples for liability debts

Accounts Payable

Accrued Expenses

Short-time period Loans Payable

Unearned or Deferred Revenues

Installment Loans Payable

Current Portion of Long-time period Debt

Mortgage Loans Payable

Q67. Explain how you could alter entries under consideration?

Ans: To regulate entries into consideration, you may type entries into five classes.

Accrued prices: Expenses had been incurred however the providers invoices aren't generated or processed yet

Accrued revenues: Revenues had been earned but the sales invoices are not generated or processed but

Deferred sales: Money become acquired in advance of having been paid or earned

Deferred prices: Money became paid for a future cost

Depreciation cost: An asset purchased in a single length ought to be allotted to fee in each of the accounting periods of the asset’s beneficial lifestyles

Q68. Explain what a deferred asset is and give an instance?

Ans: A deferred asset refers to a deferred debit or a deferred price.  An instance of a deferred price is bond issue expenses. These charges entails all of the costs or prices that an corporation incurs on the way to register and difficulty bonds. This charges are paid in a near time when the bonds are issued however it's going to not be expensed at that time.

Q69. Mention what's Bank Reconciliation?

Ans: A bank reconciliation is a process finished through a organisation to ensure that the corporation’s statistics (take a look at sign up, stability sheet, fashionable ledger account, and many others.) are correct and that the bank’s information also are accurate.

Q70. Mention what is “deposit in transit”?

Ans: A deposit in transit is a assessments and coins which have been acquired and recorded by an entity, however that have now not but been entered inside the information of the financial institution in which the budget are deposited.

Q71. Explain what is an over accrual?

Ans: An over accrual is a condition wherein the estimate for an accrual journal entry is too high. This estimate may also follow to an accrual of fee or revenue.

Q72. Mention what is account receivable?

Ans: A short term amounts due from shoppers to a seller, who have bought items or offerings from the vendor on credit score is referred as account receivable.

Q73. Explain what are the sports that includes in Cash Flow Statement?

Ans: The cash float statement show off the cash generated and used throughout the yr or months. Various sports which might be worried for the Cash Flow are

Operating sports – business activities accounting to cash

Investing sports – sale and buy of system or property

Financial sports- buy of stock and personal bonds

Supplemental information- exchange of giant objects that don’t involve coins

Q74. Mention what happens to business enterprise’s “Cash Account” if it borrows money from the financial institution by way of signing a note payable?

Ans: Due to double entry, the “coins account” will boom as such the legal responsibility account will increase.

Q75. Mention which account is responsible for hobby payable?

Ans: Account which is responsible or laid low with the interest payable is “Current liability account”

Q76. Mention what is reversing journal entries?

Ans: Reversing magazine entries are entries made at the start of an accounting period to cancel out the adjusting journal entries made on the stop of the previous accounting duration.

Q77. Mention in which do normally accruals appear on the stability sheet?

Ans: Accrued fees generally have a tendency to be extraordinarily short-term. So you'll report them inside the “present day liabilities segment” of the stability sheet.

Q78. List out a number of the amassed expenses and the accounts in that you might record them?


Wage accrual is entered with a credit to the “wages payable account”

Interest accrual is entered with a credit score to the “hobby payable account”

Payroll tax accrual is entered with a credit to the “payroll taxes payable account”

Q79. Deferred taxation is part of which equity?

Ans: Deferred taxation is part of proprietor’s fairness.

Q80. Mention what does the investment of personal assets via the owner will do?

Ans: The investment of private property via the proprietor will boom overall assets and boom owner’s fairness.

Q81. What is the equation for Acid-Test Ratio in accounting?

Ans: The equation for Acid-Test Ratio in accounting

Acid-Test Ratio = (Current belongings – Inventory) / Current Liabilities

Q82. List out things that fall beneath intangible asset?

Ans: Things that fall below intangible asset are,




Brand names

Domain names, and so forth.

Q83. Mention what is trial stability in accounting?

Ans: In accounting, trial stability is an accounting document that lists the balances in each of an enterprise’s widespread ledger bills. This is accomplished at the stop of posting magazine access to make sure that there aren't any posting errors.

Q84. Where a coins discount must be recorded in magazine entry?

Ans: A coins discount must be recorded in journal entry as a reduction of fee in “coins account”.

Q85. Mention why a few asset money owed have a credit balance?

Ans: Some asset money owed have a credit stability because of following reasons,

Receiving and posting an quantity that changed into better than the recorded receivable

Expenses took place quicker than the agreed upon prepayments

An blunders because of posting an quantity to a wrong account

The quantity of assessments written exceeded the wonderful quantity within the Cash account

Continuing to amortize or depreciate an asset after its stability has reached 0

Q86. Define what's Bad debt rate?

Ans: A Bad debt price is the quantity of an account receivable this is taken into consideration to NOT be collectible.

Q87. Explain what is the Master Account?

Ans: A Master Account has subsidiary debts.  A master account receivable can be whatever, it can be account receivable for diverse character receivable accounts.

Q88. Mention in which account does the unpresented cheque gets recorded?

Ans: The unpresented cheque will get recorded as a credit score to the coins account within the agency’s General ledger.

Q89. What information have to financial accountant have?

Ans: A licensed monetary accountant must have knowledge approximately

Accounting standards and practices

Reporting and evaluation of economic information

Auditing practices and principles

Account management


Software information dealing with Accounting

Knowledge of relevant legal guidelines, codes and rules

Q90. What are the three elements that can affect your coins waft and commercial enterprise profitability?

Ans: The 3 factors that can have an effect on your cash drift and business earnings includes

Cash flows from investing sports:It consists of stocks, bonds, bodily assets, machineries, etc.

Cash flows from working sports:It does not include cash obtained from other assets like investments

Cash go with the flow from financing activities:It consists of any activities that entails dividend bills that the organization made to its shareholders, any money that consists of inventory to the general public, any cash borrowed from the lender and many others. In other phrases, it's far a record that tells the firm approximately the money borrowed and paid out that allows you to finance its sports.

Q91. Explain what's accrual accounting?

Ans: Accrual Accounting is a method for measuring the overall performance and role of the business enterprise with the aid of figuring out monetary events no matter whilst cash transaction befell. In this approach, sales is in comparison with the expenditures, at the time wherein the transaction takes place rather than when the fee is made.

Q92. Explain the term account payable?

Ans: Account payable is referred as the amount company owes to its suppliers, its personnel, and its partners.  In other phrases, it's miles the simple value levied on the organisation to run business method this is exquisite.  Account payable for one agency may be account receivable for any other company or organisation.

Q93. Explain the which means of lengthy-time period notes payable is or long time liabilities?

Ans: Long-time period notes payable or liabilities are referred for that loan that are not speculated to due for greater than a yr.  These are the loans from banks or economic institution which might be secured against various belongings at the balance sheet, which include inventories.

Q94. Mention what is the distinction among depreciation and amortization?

Ans: Capital costs are both depreciated or amortized based totally upon the type of asset.

                            Depreciation                                 Amortization

·          Depreciate means to lose fee of an asset because of their utilization, put on and tear, old, and so forth.

·          Depreciation price is calculated in terms of exact belongings like fixtures, plant & equipment, constructing, and so on.

·          The cause of calculating depreciation fees recuperation

·          The easiest manner to calculate depreciation is to know the loss of value of an asset over its lifestyles.

·          For example, a vehicle really worth $30,000 has predicted the life of 10 years after that it'll haven't any fee in the market. The price or loss in value for the duration of this 10 years is called depreciation

·          Various method for depreciation consists of straight line depreciation, declining balance technique, organization depreciation method, unit of time/manufacturing depreciation approach, and so on.

·           Amortize way to write down off or pay the debt over a period of time. Amortization may be for loans, or it could be for Intangible assets

·          Amortization fee is calculated in terms of intangible assets like goodwill, trademark, loans, patents, and so on.

·          The purpose of calculating amortization is likewise for value restoration

·          Amortization calculates the amount spent after the intangible assets throughout the existence for that asset

·          For instance, Pharmaceutical Company spent $20 million greenbacks on a drug patent with a useful lifestyles of two decades. The amortization fee for that business enterprise can be $1 million each yr

·          Various approach for amortization is bad amortization, zoning amortization, business amortization, and so on.


Q95. Mention what does economic statement of the business enterprise includes?

Ans: Financial assertion of the business enterprise includes numerous statistics like

Balance Sheet ( Assets, liabilities, and equity)

Income announcement ( Profit or Loss statement)

Equity assertion

Cash flow assertion

Q96. Explain what's running capital?

Ans: Working capital is a financial metric that calculates the assets available to the enterprise to finance its every day operations.  It is commonly calculated by deducting modern-day liabilities from modern assets.

Q97. Explain what is ledger?

Ans: A ledger may be referred as an accounting e-book that maintains the file of magazine entries in a chronological order to individual accounts.  The method of recording this magazine entries is referred to as posting.

Q98. Mention the types of ledger?

Ans: There are three forms of ledger

General ledger

Debtors ledger

Creditors ledger

Q99. Explain what is GAAP?

Ans: GAAP way Generally Accepted Accounting Principle; it's far a framework of accounting, standards, methods & regulations determined with the aid of the expert accounting industry and practiced by means of publicly traded U.S groups all over the U.S.A.

Q100. Explain what's double-access accounting? Explain with an instance?

Ans: Double access accounting is an accounting device that requires recording commercial enterprise transaction or occasion in at the least  money owed.  It is the same idea of accounting, in which each debit account ought to be matched with a credit score account.

For example, if a organisation takes a loan from a bank, it gets cash as an asset but at the equal time it creates a liability on a employer.  This unmarried entry will affect both bills, the asset debts, and the liabilities money owed; such access is referred as double access accounting.

Q101. Explain what does the same old magazine access includes?

Ans: A general magazine access includes, date of business transaction, call of the debts affected, amounts to be debited or credited and a short description of the event.

Q102. Explain what is liabilities and what all does encompass in cutting-edge liabilities?

Ans: Liability can be defined as an duty toward another organisation or party.  It may additionally encompass turning in items, rendering services or paying money. They are the alternative of belongings, and it is able to consist of

Account payable

Interest and dividend payable

Bonds payable

Consumer deposits

Reserves for federal taxes

Short time period loans

Q103. Mention in simple terms what is the difference between Asset, fairness, and liabilities?


Asset:What financial institute (bank) or human beings owe you

Liabilities:It is some thing you owe human beings or organisation

Equity:It is some thing you very own, for instance, the quantity of your property loan you paid of.

Q104. Explain Financial Accounting. What are its characteristic functions?

Ans: Financial Accounting is the process in which commercial enterprise transactions are recorded systematically inside the various books of accounts maintained by way of the organisation so that it will prepare monetary statements. These monetary statements are essentially of two kinds: First is Profitability Statement or Profit and Loss Account and 2d is Balance Sheet.

Following are the characteristics capabilities of Financial Accounting:

1) Monetary Transactions: In monetary accounting only transactions in monetary terms are taken into consideration. Transactions not expressed in monetary terms do not discover any region in financial accounting, howsoever essential they will be from business factor of view.

2) Historical Nature: Financial accounting considers best those transactions which might be of historical nature i.E the transaction which have already taken vicinity. No futuristic transactions discover any place in monetary accounting, howsoever vital they may be from business factor of view.

3) Legal Requirement: Financial accounting is a legal requirement. It is necessary to keep the economic accounting and prepare monetary statements there from. It is likewise compulsory to get these financial statements audited.

4) External Use: Financial accounting is for the ones folks that are not part of choice making technique regarding the agency like buyers, clients, providers, monetary establishments and so on. Thus, it's far for external use.

Five) Disclosure of Financial Status: It discloses the financial repute and economic performance of the enterprise as a whole.

6) Interim Reports: Financial statements that are based on financial accounting are meantime reports and can't be the final ones.

7) Financial Accounting Process: The method of monetary accounting gets affected due to the different accounting guidelines accompanied by the accountants. These accounting rules range mainly in two areas: Valuation of inventory and Calculation of depreciation.

Q105. Compare Financial Accounting and Cost Accounting.


1) Financial Accounting protects the pastimes of the outsiders handling the company e.G shareholders, lenders and so forth. Whereas reviews of Cost Accounting is used for the inner reason via the control to enable the same in discharging numerous functions in a right way.

2) Maintenance of Financial Accounting facts and education of economic statements is a legal requirement whereas Cost Accounting isn't always a criminal requirement.

3) Financial Accounting is involved approximately the calculation of income and scenario of the employer as complete while Cost accounting offers in value ascertainment and calculation of profitability of the person merchandise, departments etc.

4) Financial Accounting considers only transactions of historical financial nature while Cost Accounting considers no longer simplest historical information however also destiny activities.

Five) Financial Accounting reports are prepared in the standard formats in accordance with GAAP while Cost accounting data is pronounced in whatever form management wishes.

Q106. What are the various structures of Accounting? Explain them.

Ans: There are  structures of Accounting

1) Cash System of Accounting: This device records most effective cash receipts and payments. This system assumes that there are not any credit transactions. In this device of accounting, costs are considered most effective when they're paid and earning are taken into consideration whilst they are virtually acquired. This machine is utilized by the groups which are installed for non income reason. But this device is taken into consideration to be faulty in nature as it does no longer show the real income earned and the present day state of affairs of the business enterprise.

2) Mercantile or Accrual System of Accounting: In this device, fees and incomes are taken into consideration in the course of that period to which they pertain. This system of accounting is considered to be perfect but it can end result into unrealized income which may reflect within the books of the debts on which the enterprise must pay taxes too. All the enterprise forms of company are legally required to observe Mercantile or Accrual System of Accounting.

Q107. What are the important matters to be remembered even as preparing a financial institution reconciliation assertion?

Ans: While preparing a financial institution reconciliation assertion following essential points want to be remembered

Bank Reconciliation Statement is ready both with the aid of starting with the Bank bypass e book balance or Cash e-book stability.

If the balance of the Cash book is taken as a starting point then Cash e book balance is to be adjusted according with the entries surpassed inside the Bank skip book and vice versa. For instance:If the balance is taken as consistent with the Cash e book then the following gadgets may be brought:

Cheques issued but no longer supplied for charge;

Amount credited in Passbook however now not in Cash ebook;

Deposits made inside the financial institution without delay;

Wrong credits given by financial institution;

Interest credited within the Passbook.

The following items could be subtracted

Cheques deposited however not cleared

Interest/Bank Charges debited by means of financial institution

Direct bills made by financial institution not entered in Cash ebook

Cheques dishonoured no longer recorded in coins book

Wrong debits given by bank

If it is prepared with the Bank balance as per the bank passbook, then the above method may be reversed i.E the gadgets may be delivered to the skip e-book which were deducted from the coins e-book stability and people items might be deducted from the bank pass book balance which had been brought to the coins ebook stability.

Q108. What is price accountancy? What are the gadgets of Cost Accountancy?

Ans: Cost accountancy is the application of costing and fee accounting concepts, strategies and techniques to the science, art and exercise of cost manipulate and the ascertainment of profitability as well as the presentation of facts for the reason of managerial choice making.

Following are the objects of Cost Accountancy

o    Ascertainment of Cost and Profitability

o    Determining Selling Price

o    Facilitating Cost Control

o    Presentation of records for powerful managerial selection

o    Provide foundation for running policy

o    Facilitating guidance of economic or different statements

Q109. What is capitalization? What is its importance?

Ans: Capitalization is a time period which has distinctive meanings in both monetary and accounting context. Capitalization in accounting means the price to shop for an asset that's included in the rate of the asset while in financial phrases it's miles the value which is required to shop for an asset which includes rate of a selected asset and it additionally include the retained income of a organisation with stock debt and long term debt. There are two sorts of capitalization which can be known as as Over-capitalization and every other is known as as Under-capitalization. Capitalization may be very import aspect in figuring out the price of the corporation in the marketplace that is based at the financial shape of the employer. This aspect relies upon on the preceding statistics and economics of the corporation. This also suggests a particular behaviour of the agencies’ structure and lets in them to create a plan to do the marketing.

Q110. What to your opinion makes a very good economic model?

Ans: It's crucial to have strong financial modeling fundamentals.  Wherever feasible model assumptions (inputs) need to be in one location and fairly coloured (normally bank fashions use blue font for version inputs).  Good Excel fashions also make it smooth for customers to apprehend how inputs are translated into outputs.  Good Excel fashions also consist of blunders tests to make sure the version is operating efficaciously (e.G. The stability sheet balances, the cash flow calculations are correct, and so on.).  The comprise enough element, but not too much, and they have a dashboard that virtually displays the important thing outputs with charts and graphs.  For extra, check out our whole manual to economic modeling.

?Q111. If it have been up to you, what could the budgeting process appear to be?

Ans: This is rather subjective.  In my opinion a terrific finances is one which has purchase-in from all departments in the organisation, is practical but strives for achievement, has been hazard adjusted to allow for a margin of blunders, and is tied in to the the organization's universal strategic plan.  In order to obtain this the finances wishes to be an iterative method that consists of all departments.  It may be zero-based totally (beginning from scratch every time), or building off the previous year, but it relies upon what type of commercial enterprise you are walking as to that's higher.  It's critical to have an amazing budgeting / making plans calendar that everyone can observe.  This is an crucial a part of how to be a global class financial analyst.

?Q112. Walk me through the 3 monetary statements.

Ans: The stability sheet indicates a enterprise’s property, its liabilities and shareholders’ equity.  The profits declaration outlines the organisation’s sales and expenses.  The coins drift assertion indicates the coins flows from operating, making an investment and financing activities.

Q113. If I had most effective 1 statement and wanted to review the general health of a agency, which announcement might I use and why?

Ans: Cash is king. The coins go with the flow declaration gives a real photo of the way an awful lot coins the company is generating.  Ironically, it frequently gets the least interest.  You can likely pick out a distinct answer for this question, but you have to have an awesome justification (i.E. The stability sheet because property are the genuine drier of cash float etc and many others.)

?Q114. When must a agency keep in mind issuing debt rather than fairness??

Ans: A enterprise ought to continually optimize its capital structure. If it has taxable income it is able to enjoy the tax protect of issuing debt.  If the firm has right now regular cash flows and is able to make their hobby payments it could make sense to trouble debt if it lowers the WACC.

Basic Accounting Terms:

 Definition of accounting: “the artwork of recording, classifying and summarizing in a giant manner and in phrases of money, transactions and events which can be, in part at least of a economic person and decoding the consequences there of”.

 Book retaining: It is particularly worried with recording of monetary information relating to the business operations in a big and orderly way.

 Concepts of accounting:

Separate entity concept

Going challenge concept

Money size idea

Cost concept

Dual element concept

Accounting period idea

Periodic matching of costs and sales concept

Realization concept.

Four Conventions of accounting:


Full disclosure



 Systems of e book maintaining:

single access device

double access machine

 Systems of accounting:

Cash system accounting

Mercantile machine of accounting.

 Principles of accounting:

Personal a/c: Debit the receiver

Credit the giver

Real a/c: Debit what comes in

Credit what goes out

Nominal a/c: Debit all prices and losses

Credit all profits and incomes

 Meaning of ledger: Ledger is a fixed of bills. It carries all accounts of the commercial enterprise business enterprise whether or not actual, nominal, private.

 Posting: It means moving the debit and credit objects from the magazine to their respective debts in the ledger.

 Trial balance: Trial balance is a statement containing the numerous ledger balances on a specific date.

 Credit be aware: The consumer while returns the products get credit score for the price of the products returned. A credit score observe is sent to him intimating that his a/c has been credited with the fee of the products back.

 Debit word: When the products are back to the supplier, a debit note is sent to him indicating that his a/c has been debited with the amount stated inside the debit observe.

 Contra entry: Which accounting access is recorded on each the debit and credit score aspect of the cashbook is referred to as the contra access.

 Petty cash ebook: Petty cash is maintained by way of business to record petty coins prices of the business, which include postage, cartage, stationery, and so on.

 Promisory notice: an device in writing containing an unconditional mission signed by way of the maker, to pay sure amount of money best to or to the order of a certain individual or to the barer of the tool.

 Cheque: A bill of trade drawn on a particular banker and payable on call for.

 Stale Cheque: A stale cheque approach no longer legitimate of cheque that means extra than six months the cheque isn't always valid.

 Bank reconciliation announcement: It is a statement reconciling the stability as proven by way of the financial institution passbook and the stability as shown via the Cash Book. Obj: to know the distinction & skip necessary correcting, adjusting entries in the books.

 Matching concept: Matching method calls for proper matching of price with the revenue.

 Capital income: The term capital profits way an profits which does no longer develop out of or pertain to the walking of the business right.

 Revenue earnings: The profits, which arises out of and in the direction of the ordinary commercial enterprise transactions of a concern.

 Capital expenditure: It method an expenditure which has been incurred for the motive of obtaining a long time gain for the enterprise.

 Revenue expenditure: An expenditure that incurred in the course of everyday enterprise transactions of a challenge.

 Differed sales expenditure: An expenditure, that is incurred at some stage in an accounting period but is relevant in addition intervals additionally. Eg: heavy advertisement.

 Bad money owed: Bad money owed denote the amount misplaced from debtors to whom the goods were sold on credit.

 Depreciation: Depreciation denotes step by step and everlasting lower inside the value of asset due to wear and tear, generation adjustments, laps of time and accident.

 Fictitious property: These are assets no longer represented by tangible ownership or assets. Examples of preliminary prices, discount on problem of stocks, debit stability within the profit And loss account when proven on the assets aspect inside the balance sheet.

 Intanglbe Assets: Intangible assets suggest the belongings which isn't always having the bodily look. And it’s have the actual cost, it proven on the assets aspect of the stability sheet.

 Accrued Income: Accrued earnings means earnings which has been earned through the enterprise throughout the accounting year however which has not but been due and, therefore, has not been obtained.

 Outstanding Income: Outstanding Income method earnings which has come to be due all through the accounting year however which has not so far been acquired by way of the company.

 Suspense account: The suspense account is an account to which the distinction inside the trial balance has been positioned briefly.

 Depletion: It implies elimination of an available but no longer replaceable source, Such as extracting coal from a coal mine.

 Amortization: The method of writing of intangible assets is term as amortization.

 Dilapidations: The term dilapidations to damage executed to a building or other assets in the course of tenancy.

 Capital employed: The time period capital employed method sum of overall long time funds employed within the business. I.E.

(Share capital+ reserves & surplus +long time loans – (non commercial enterprise property + fictitious assets)

 Equity shares: Those shares which aren't having pref. Rights are called fairness shares.

 Pref.Shares: Those stocks which can be carrying the pref.Rights are referred to as pref. Shares Pref.Rights in respect of fixed dividend. Pref.Proper to repayment of capital within the event of organization finishing up.

 Leverage: It is a pressure carried out at a specific work to get the favored end result.

 Operating leverage: the working leverage takes area whilst a modifications in revenue more adjustments in EBIT.

 Financial leverage: it's far nothing however a procedure of the use of debt capital to increase the price of return on fairness

 Combine leverage: It is used to degree of the overall threat of the firm = running danger + financial hazard.

 Joint project: A joint challenge is an association of  or extra the men and women who combined for the execution of a specific transaction and divide the income or loss their of an agreed ratio.

 Partnership: Partnership is the relation b/w the humans who have agreed to share the income of business carried on with the aid of all or any of them acting for all.

 Factoring: It is an arrangement beneath which a firm (known as borrower) receives advances towards its receivables, from financial institutions (known as issue)

 Capital reserve: The reserve which transferred from the capital gains is known as capital reserve.

 General reserve: the reserve which is transferred from everyday earnings of the company is known as trendy reserve

 Free Cash: The cash now not for any precise reason free from any encumbrance like surplus cash.

 Minority Interest: Minority interest refers back to the fairness of the minority shareholders in a subsidiary enterprise.

 Capital receipts: Capital receipts can be defined as “non-recurring receipts from the proprietor of the commercial enterprise or lender of the cash crating a liability to both of them.

 Revenue receipts: Revenue receipts may also described as “A ordinary receipts in opposition to sale of products in the everyday course of business and which typically the result of the trading activities”.

 Equity share capital: The total sum of fairness stocks is referred to as fairness share capital.

Authorized share capital: It is the maximum amount of the share capital, which a organisation can boost for the time being.

Issued capital: It is that a part of the legal capital, which has been allocated to the public for subscriptions.

Subscribed capital: it's far the part of the issued capital, which has been allocated to the public

Called up capital: It has been portion of the subscribed capital which has been known as up by using the company.

Paid up capital: It is the portion of the called up capital towards which payment has been obtained.

Debentures: Debenture is a certificates issued through a company beneath its seal acknowledging a debt due by means of it to its holder.

Cash profit: coins earnings is the profit it's miles befell from the cash sales.

Provision: provision commonly way any amount written off or retained through way of offering depreciation, renewals or diminutions in the price of property or retained by way of offering for any acknowledged legal responsibility of which the quantity can not be determined with huge accuracy.

Reserve: The provision in extra of the amount considered necessary for the purpose it was in the beginning made is likewise taken into consideration as reserve Provision is charge against income at the same time as reserves is an appropriation of earnings Creation of reserve boom owner’s fund even as creation of provisions decreases his price range inside the business.

Reserve fund: The term reserve fund method such reserve in opposition to which truly investment and so on.,

Undisclosed reserves: Sometimes a reserve is created however its identification is merged with a few different a/c or institution of accounts in order that the existence of the reserve is not known such reserve is referred to as an undisclosed reserve.

Finance management: Financial control offers with procurement of finances and their effective usage in business.

Objectives of financial management: economic control having  targets that Is:

Profit maximization: The finance manager has to make his choices in a way in order that the earnings of the priority are maximized.

Wealth maximization: Wealth maximization means the goal of a firm need to be to maximise its value or wealth, or fee of a firm is represented by means of the market rate of its commonplace inventory.

Time price of cash: The time fee of cash means that really worth of a rupee acquired these days isn't the same as the really worth of a rupee to be obtained in future.

Capital shape: It refers to the combination of assets from wherein the long-term budget required in a commercial enterprise may be raised; in different words, it refers to the percentage of debt, preference capital and equity capital.

Optimum capital shape: Capital shape is choicest whilst the firm has a combination of fairness and debt in order that the wealth of the company is most.

Wacc: It denotes weighted common fee of capital. It is described as the overall price of capital computed with the aid of connection with the proportion of every issue of capital as weights.

Financial damage-even factor: It denotes the extent at which a company’s EBIT is just sufficient to cover hobby and preference dividend.

Capital budgeting: Capital budgeting entails the manner of choice making with regard to funding in constant belongings. Or decision making with regard to funding of cash in longterm tasks.

Payback length: Payback length represents the time period required for entire restoration of the preliminary investment inside the undertaking.

ARR: Accounting or average charges of go back way the common annual yield at the project.

NPV: The Net present value of an investment thought is described as the sum of the existing values of all destiny cash inflows much less the sum of the present values of all coins out flows related to the proposal.

Profitability index: Where special funding concept every involving special initial investments and coins inflows are to be in comparison.

IRR: Internal fee of return is the charge at which the sum total of discounted cash inflows equals the discounted coins out go with the flow.

Treasury control: It means it's miles described as the efficient control of liquidity and financial danger in commercial enterprise.

Concentration banking: It means become aware of locations or locations in which customers are positioned and open a local bank a/c in every of these places and open local series canter.

Marketable securities: Surplus cash can be invested in short term gadgets so that it will earn interest.

Ageing agenda: In an aging schedule the receivables are categorized consistent with their age.

Maximum permissible financial institution finance (MPBF): It is the maximum quantity that banks can lend a borrower towards his working capital necessities.

Commercial paper: A cp is a short time period promissory be aware issued by means of a employer, negotiable by means of endorsement and transport, issued at a discount on face cost as may be decided by using the issuing organization.

Bridge finance: It refers to the loans taken via the organization commonly from business banks for a quick duration pending disbursement of loans sanctioned with the aid of the economic institutions.

Venture capital: It refers to the financing of excessive-chance ventures promoted by new certified ntrepreneurs who require funds to offer shape to their thoughts.

Debt securitization: It is a method of financing, wherein in securities are issued on the basis of a package deal of assets (referred to as asset pool).

Lease financing: Leasing is a settlement in which one party (owner) purchases belongings and allows its views by some other celebration (lessee) over a specific duration

Trade Credit: It represents credit score granted through suppliers of products, in the normal direction of enterprise.

Over draft: Under this facility a fixed restrict is granted inside which the borrower allowed to overdraw from his account.

Cash credit score: It is an association beneath which a customer is allowed an increase as much as certain restrict towards credit granted by financial institution.

Clean overdraft: It refers to an strengthen by way of way of overdraft facility, however no longer back through any tangible protection.

Share capital: The sum total of the nominal fee of the shares of a business enterprise is known as percentage capital.

Funds flow announcement: It is the announcement deals with the economic resources for strolling business sports. It explains how the funds obtained and the way they used.

Sources of funds: There are  sources of budget internal sources and outside assets. Internal source: Funds from operations is the most effective internal resources of funds and a few important points add to it they do not bring about the outflow of funds

Depreciation on constant property

Preliminary prices or goodwill written off, Loss on sale of constant assets Deduct the following objects, as they do not boom the funds:Profit on sale of constant property, profit on revaluation Of fixed belongings

External sources: (a) Funds from lengthy-time period loans (b)Sale of fixed property (c) Funds from growth in share capital

Application of finances: (a) Purchase of constant property (b) Payment of dividend (c)Payment of tax liability (d) Payment of constant liability

ICD (Inter corporate deposits): Companies can borrow funds for a brief period. For instance 6 months or much less from any other corporation that have surplus liquidity? Such deposits made by using one company in another agency are known as ICD.

Certificate of deposits: The CD is a document of identify much like a fixed deposit receipt issued by banks there may be no prescribed interest charge on such CDs it is primarily based on the prevailing market situations.

Public deposits: It is very important supply of brief term and medium time period finance. The employer can be given PD from contributors of the public and shareholders. It has the adulthood length of 6 months to 3 years.

Euro troubles: The euro troubles manner that the issue is indexed on a European stock Exchange. The subscription can come from any a part of the world except India.

GDR (Global depository receipts): A depository receipt is largely a negotiable certificates, ruled in us dollars that represents a non-US business enterprise publicly traded in neighborhood currency fairness shares.

ADR (American depository receipts): Depository receipts issued via a agency in the USA are known as ADRs. Such receipts are to be issued according with the provisions stipulated via the securities Exchange fee (SEC) of USA like SEBI in India.

Commercial banks: Commercial banks amplify overseas foreign money loans for global operations, much like rupee loans. The banks additionally supplied overdraft.

Development banks: It gives lengthy-time period and medium term loans such as foreign foreign money loans

International businesses: International organizations like the IFC,IBRD,ADB,IMF and many others. Provide indirect help for acquiring foreign forex.

Seed capital assistance: The seed capital help scheme is preferred by the IDBI for professionally or technically qualified entrepreneurs and humans owning relevantexperience and talents and entrepreneur tendencies.

Unsecured loans: It constitutes a huge part of long-term finance available to an organization.

Cash drift announcement: It is a statement depicting change in coins role from one period to another.

Materiality concepts: - It is a one of the accounting principle, as according to best crucial statistics can be taken, and UN critical records could be left out inside the preparation of the financial declaration.

Matching principles: - The fee or expenses of a business of a specific length are as compared with the sales of the period in an effort to verify the internet profit and loss.

Accrual concept: - The earnings arises best while there may be an boom in owners capital, which is a end result of excess of sales over costs and loss.

Financial evaluation: The procedure of interpreting the past, gift, and destiny financial condition of a corporation.

Income statement: An accounting announcement which shows the level of sales, costs and earnings happening for a given accounting duration.

Annual record: The file issued annually through a organization, to its proportion holders. It containing financial declaration like, trading and income & lose account and stability sheet.

Bankrupt: A announcement wherein a company is not able to meets its obligations and as a result, it is belongings are surrendered to court docket for management

Lease: Lease is a agreement between to events below the settlement, the owner of the asset offers the proper to apply the asset to the consumer over an agreed duration of the time for a consideration.

Opportunity fee: The fee associated with now not doing some thing.

Budgeting: The time period budgeting is used for preparing budgets and different producer for making plans,co-ordination,and manage of business corporation.

Capital: The time period capital refers to the overall funding of company in money, tangible and intangible property. It is the overall wealth of a company.

Capitalization: It is the sum of the par cost of shares and bonds out standings.

Over capitalization: When a commercial enterprise is unable to earn truthful charge on its outstanding securities.

Under capitalization: When a enterprise is able to earn fair price or over fee on it's far superb securities.

Capital gearing: The time period capital gearing refers to the connection among fairness and long term debt.

Cost of capital: It approach the minimum charge of go back anticipated by means of its investment.

Cash dividend: The price of dividend in coins

Define the time period accrual: Recognition of revenues and costs as they're earned or incurred. It includes reputation of transaction referring to assets and liabilities as they occur irrespective of the real receipts or bills.

Accrued prices: An fee which has been incurred in an accounting duration however for which no enforceable declare has come to be due in what period in opposition to the enterprises.

Accrued revenue: Revenue which has been earned is an earned is an accounting duration but in respect of which no enforceable claim has emerge as because of in that period via the company.

Accrued legal responsibility: A developing however no longer but enforceable declare by every other character which accumulates with the passage of time or the receipt of service or otherwise. It can also rise from the acquisition of offerings which at the date of accounting have been only in part performed and aren't yet billable.

Convention of Full disclosure: According to this conference, all accounting statements ought to be absolutely organized and to that quit complete disclosure of all significant statistics could be made.

Convention of consistency: According to this conference it's miles important that accounting practices and techniques remain unchanged from three hundred and sixty five days to some other.

Define the time period preliminary fees: Expenditure referring to the formation of an o