Loadrunner Interview Questions and Answers
Q1. What is Load Runner?
Ans: HPE LoadRunner is a software program testing device from Hewlett Packard Enterprise. In Sept 2016, HPE introduced it's far selling its software enterprise, together with Mercury products, to Micro Focus.It is used to check programs, measuring machine behaviour and performance below load. HPE acquired LoadRunner as a part of its acquisition of Mercury Interactive in November 2006.
HPE LoadRunner can simulate lots of customers concurrently the use of application software, recording and later reading the overall performance of key components of the software.
LoadRunner simulates user pastime through producing messages between software additives or with the aid of simulating interactions with the user interface including keypresses or mouse moves. The messages/interactions to be generated are saved in scripts. LoadRunner can generate the scripts via recording them, consisting of logging HTTP requests between a patron internet browser and an utility's internet server.
Q2. Which protocols are supported by Loadrunnar?
Ans: As of Loadrunner 9.Five following protocols are supported. This will growth with future releases. The interviewer isn't searching out you to call all but some (say five-7 protocols).
Application Deployment Solution: For the Citrix protocol.
Client/Server: For DB2 CLI, DNS, MS SQL, ODBC, Oracle (2-tier), Sybase
Ctlib, Sybase Dblib, and Windows Sockets protocols.
Custom: For C templates, Visual Basic templates, Java templates,
Distributed Components: For COM/DCOM, Corba-Java, and Rmi -Java protocols.
E-commercial enterprise: For FTP, LDAP, Palm, Web (HTTP/HTML), Web Services, and the twin Web/Winsocket protocols.
Enterprise Java Beans: For EJB Testing and Rmi-Java protocols.
ERP/CRM: For Baan, Oracle NCA, Peoplesoft-Tuxedo, Peoplesoft 8,
SAPGUI, SAP-Web, and Siebel (Siebel-DB2CLI, Siebel-MSSQL, Siebel-Web, and Siebel-Oracle) protocols.
Legacy: For Terminal Emulation (RTE).
Mailing Services: Internet Messaging (IMAP), MS Exchange (MAPI), POP3, and SMTP.
Middleware: Jacada and Tuxedo (6, 7) protocols.
Streaming: For MediaPlayer and RealPlayer protocols.
Q3. Which components have you utilized in Loadrunner ?
Ans: Vuser generator - For generating Scripts
Controller - For developing and executing scenarios
Analyzer - To analyze effects
Q4. What is load runner Agent.
Ans: Agent is interface between host gadget and controller
Q5 .What is the manner for developing a Vuser Script ?
Ans: There are four steps for developing a vuser script.
Record the Vuser Script .
Playback / Enhance the recorded vuser script.
Define the diverse run-time settings & check
Incorporate the script in a Loadrunner state of affairs
Q6. How many VUsers are required for load trying out ?
Ans: This is essentially a trick query.
The variety of VUsers required depends in your system below check , network configurations , hardware settings, memory, working gadget, software program applications goal of overall performance check. There can't be any ordinary price for Vuser.
Q7. What is the distinction in strolling the Vuser as a system and as a thread? Which is greater high-quality way of strolling Vuser?
Ans: When Vuser is administered as a manner the identical motive force program is loaded into reminiscence for each Vuser. This will take a big quantity of reminiscence and could restriction the wide variety of Vusers you could run on a single generator
When Vuser is run as a thread, simplest one example of driver application is shared by given range of Vusers. You can run more range of Vusers on a unmarried generator using the multi-threading mode.
Q8. What is the significance of "Vuser-init "?
Ans: Vuser-init facts the pre-operations also known as the initialization operations before the actual utility is run.
Q9. What is prolonged log?
Ans: An extended log will shop statistics which includes statistics lower back through server and superior hint, parameter substitution and much other statistics depending at the alternatives you select in run-time settings.
Q10. How will you divide your script into more than one Actions? Why?
Ans: I will divide the script into Actions based at the capability. For instance, Once Action for Logining into Application, any other Action for reserving and so on.
Actions growth code reusability, reduce maintenance time and as a result, decrease expenses.
Q11. How are you able to set the quantity of Vusers in Loadrunner ?
Ans: You can set the quantity of Vusers within the controller segment while creating your scenarios. Many other advanced alternatives like ramp-up, ramp-down of Vusers are also available in the Controller segment.
Q12. What are monitors?
Ans: Monitors are used to "monitor" performance bottlenecks. They are used in Controller phase of Load Runner
Q13. What are the types of check factors is available in LoadRunner?
Ans: Loadrunner presents two kinds of check factors
Image Checkpoints : This checkpoint will confirm the presence of an photo on a page during run-time
Text Checkpoint : This checkpoint will affirm the presence of a textual content-string on a web page for the duration of run-time
Q14. What kind of hassle we will face regarding hardware, software, community and reminiscence bottleneck at some stage in the performance take a look at?
Ans: The possible issues among others will be -
Lack of Hardware
Network related troubles.
Q15. What might be your recommendation to improve overall performance degree?
Ans: Fine Tuning of network, database, and app and internet server is suggested.
At the community level try to optimize the latency and bandwidth.
At database stage, verify all indexes and sequences by using going for walks profilers. You might also optimize your database queries.
At the App server stage, run profilers for finding the memory leaks inside the utility
At the web server degree you can use video display units and optimize the throughput and other associated metrics of the server.
Q16. What is Rendezvous point?
Ans: Rendezvous factor is Synchronization/Wait factor . Rendezvous factors coach Vusers to wait for the duration of test execution for more than one Vusers to arrive at a sure point, simply so they may simultaneously perform a challenge.
The importance of this is to emulate a few heavy load only to specific portion of the scenario and check the behavior of the software.
Q17. What is Correlation?
Ans: Correlation is used to obtain records which is unique for every run of your test script (ex: session ids). While recording, those dynamic values are hard-coded in your script causing the script to fail at some stage in playback. Correlation is a technique where dynamic values aren't difficult-coded to your script however are extracted at run-time to avoid failure.
Q18. What is Manual Correlation?
Ans: Its correlation technique which uses characteristic Web_reg_save_param() to pick out dynamic values in your script. It is important that your playback your script to affirm that correlation is achieved efficaciously.
Q19. How do you become aware of the performance bottlenecks? -
Ans: Performance Bottlenecks can be detected by way of the usage of monitors.
These monitors is probably utility server monitors, web server monitors, database server video display units and community video display units.
They assist in finding out the location in our state of affairs which reasons expanded reaction time.
The measurements made are typically overall performance response time, throughput, hits/sec, community postpone graphs, and many others
Q20. Which characteristic is used to give up a nested transaction ?
Ans: The function is - lr_end_sub_transaction
Q21. What is the distinction among transaction and transaction instance in loadrunner ?
Ans: A transaction is used to degree time between executions of positive statements
A transaction example is used for performance evaluation
Q22. While the script is walking we find a few values that can be need to be correlated? Is it possible to do manual correlation for those values?
Ans: NO. Its no longer viable to do correlation whilst script is going for walks however you can make adjustments as soon as script has stopped.
Q23. What is Elapsed Time in Load Runner?
Ans: Elapsed time designates how a good deal time has surpassed because the release of the modern-day occasion and is measured in another way for unique displays as given under -
In Scenario Status Window - Elapsed time is measured from the instant you hit "Start Scenario" or " Initialize/Run Vuser?" button.
In "Vuser" window elapsed time is measured shape the moment Vuser enters "walking" kingdom.
Q24. Does caching have a bad effect for your load testing results ?
Ans: Yes. Caching has a bad impact. Cache is temporary reminiscence which stores your surfing history. When you go to a page for the SECOND time , the time required to load the web page might be less than that required to load the web page on your first visit since a good deal of the statistics required to load the web page is grabbed from the cache rather than the server. This will effect the response times on your check. Hence, it's miles recommended to show-off caching.
Q25. What is the difference among Overlay graph and Correlate graph?
Ans: Overlay Graph: It will overlay the content of graphs that stocks a commonplace x-axis
Correlate Graph: It will Plot the Y-axis of graphs in opposition to every other.
Q26. What is the difference among lr_error_message and lr_debug _message?
Ans: lr_error_message - Sends a error message to the LoadRunner Controller's Output window
lr_debug _message - Sends a debug message to the LoadRunner Controller's Output window
Q27. What is the distinction among load , overall performance testing ?
Ans: The goal of performance testing is to check whether or not an software hundreds/updates within stipulate time limit (say 2 seconds). It uses metrics like response time , Requests in line with 2nd. It is accomplished under production - like load conditions.
The goal of load checking out is to test scalability of the gadget. For instance, locating out the maximum wide variety of users supported by means of the device inside certain specifications.
Q28. You have created numerous Auto Correlation guidelines. A new tester to your group is preparing to report a set of scripts on the same application on his workstation. What are you able to do to offer the tester with the correlation rules?
Ans: I could export the Auto Correlation guidelines to a .Cor file, and then have the new team member import the .Cor file into his Auto Correlation policies
Q29. You need to emulate a call middle for an airline. All representatives login inside the morning, perform their commercial enterprise tactics, and log out at night time. In sooner or later, a consultant will Create forty flight reservations, Modify 10 flight reservations, and Search for 20 flight reservations. A consultant cannot carry out a Modify with out acting a Search first. How might you design the run logic ?
Ans: Create - 67% Search - sixteen% Block0 - 17% Search Modify
Q30. Where should you upload a web_reg_save_param characteristic to a script?
Ans: Before the step that retrieves the dynamic fee
Q31. You need to have each step in your script measured as a transaction in the Controller and now not shown in the Replay Log in VuGen. How can you accomplish this?
Ans: This may be done by permitting the automatic transaction inside the Run-time settings
Q32. Which internet protocol recording stage generates the web_submit_form characteristic?
Ans: The URL protocol generates this feature.
Q33. What is load trying out?
Ans: Load testing is to test that if the software works nicely with the hundreds from huge wide variety of simultaneous customers and transactions. It also used to decide whether or not it is able to manage height usage periods.
Q34. What is load runner?
Ans: Load Runner is a performance checking out device from HP. This device helps all components along with Load, Stress, Endurance, data quantity and spike Testing.
Q35. What are all the components of LoadRunner?
Ans: Following are the additives of LoadRunner
The Virtual User Generator
Controller, and the Agent technique
LoadRunner Analysis and Monitoring
LoadRunner Books Online
Q36. What Component of LoadRunner is used to document a script?
Ans: The Virtual User Generator (VuGen) component is used to report a script and it enables you to expand Vuser scripts for a ramification of utility sorts and conversation protocols.
Q37. What is a rendezvous point?
Ans: Rendezvous factors are added into Vuser scripts to simulate greater customers at the server. Rendezvous points instruct Vusers to wait for the duration of check execution if you want to perform the duties concurrently.
For instance, in a banking utility, Rendezvous points are inserted for a hundred+ a couple of customers to deposit cash simultaneously.
Q38. What is a state of affairs?
Ans: A situation is nothing but an event that takes place for each trying out session.
For instance, a situation defines
Number of customers
Action to be done
Virtual machines machine
Q39. How can we debug a LoadRunner script?
Ans: VuGen contains two options to debug Vuser scripts
Run Step by using Step command and
We can also manually set the message magnificence inside your script using the lr_set_debug_message feature.
Q40. How can we perform functional testing beneath load?
Ans: Functionality underneath load can be tested by means of going for walks numerous Vusers simultaneously. By increasing the Vusers, it is necessary to decide how a whole lot load the server can preserve.
Q41. What is the connection among Response Time and Throughput?
Ans: The Throughput indicates the quantity of facts in bytes that the Vusers acquired from the server in a 2d. When It is compared with transaction reaction time, throughput and response time get reduced.
The top throughput and highest reaction time might occur about on the equal time.
Q42. What does vuser_init and vuser_end action incorporate?
Ans: Vuser_init action consists of procedures to login to a server and Vuser_end segment includes log out methods.
Q43. What is the difference among general log and extended log?
Ans: The fashionable log sends a subset of functions and messages to the output log and subset of features depends on the Vuser type.
Extended log sends a detailed script execution messages to the output log. It is specially used at some stage in debugging whilst consumer desires data about Parameter substitution.
Q44. What are all the styles of Goals in Goal-Oriented Scenario of Load Runner?
Ans: Load Runner offers you with 5 different styles of desires:
Number of concurrent Vusers
Number of hits per 2d
Number of transactions according to 2nd
Number of pages consistent with minute
Transaction response time
Q45. What is a characteristic to seize dynamic values within the net vuser script?
Ans: Web_reg_save_param is the feature that saves dynamic information facts to a parameter.
Q46. What are the Load Runner testing process?
Ans: Following are the testing technique in LoadRunner:
Plan load check
Create Vuser Scripts
Q47. What is far flung command launcher?
Ans: The far off command launcher allows the controller to start packages in the host device.
Q48. How can we expand the database vuser script?
Ans: Vuser scripts can be evolved both through recording with the weight vuser script generator or by the usage of Load runner vuser script template.
Q49. How do you load a load runner Agent?
Ans: While jogging the scenario, loadrunner controller instructs the far flung agent dispatcher to launch loadrunner agent. The controller instructs the loadrunner agent to initialize, run, pause and forestall the vusers.
Q50. What is the distinction among hits/2d and requests/second?
Ans: Hits in step with 2d approach the wide variety of hits the server receives in one 2d from the vuser.
Request in keeping with 2d is the quantity of request the vuser will request from the server.
Q51. What are the benefits of load runner?
Ans: Following are the benefits of Load Runner:
Reduces human intervention
Reduces the requirement of the structures
Helps inside the higher usage of time and money
Effective usage of automation
Single point execution
Q52. What is the vuser within the situation?
Ans: The vuser is the digital customers who can simulate the real users. The digital customers who take the location of actual users’s working client software program, such as IE sending requests the usage of the HTTP protocol to IIS or Apache net servers.
Q53. How do we write a person defined function in LoadRunner?
Ans: Use need to create the outside library that includes the function. This library should then be delivered to the bin directory of VuGen. And then, the consumer-defined function can be assigned as a parameter.
Q54. What are the modifications that may be made to run-time settings?
Ans:There are four run-time settings that may be made:
Pacing: This consists of generation matter.
Log: Logging can be set to conventional or disabled.
Think Time: Capable of placing assume time to be not noted or replayed.
General: Allows the placing of Vusers for approaches or multithreading.
Q55. How are we able to find database related problems?
Ans: Monitors and the Data Resource Graph can be used to locate database related problems. LoadRunner permit the tester to specify the aid that desires to be measured earlier than the controller is administered.
Q56. How many styles of graphs are available in LoadRunner?
Ans: There are 5 forms of graphs:
Network put off time graph – shows the time that elapses between request and reaction
Two transaction reaction time graphs – one transation response time graph for load and any other one for percentile
Hits/2d graph – Shows software traffic extent
Pages download/2d graph – shows the rate at which pages are downloaded consistent with 2nd
Q57. How can performance bottlenecks can be diagnosed?
Ans: Monitors may be used to come across overall performance bottlenecks. These include community, net server, application server, and database server video display units.
These video display units can be used to find trouble spots in eventualities that purpose boom in reaction time and throughput, community delays, overall performance response time, hits/second, and so on.
Q58. What is ramp up and how it is able to be set?
Ans: Ramp up is step by step increasing the burden on a server and can be simulated by way of step by step growing the range of Vusers. This feature may be determined inside the Scenario Scheduling Options.
Q59. How correlation may be achieved?
Ans: Correlation can be performed in two ways:
Use the scan function to search for correlations and select a value from the result.
Record a couple of scripts after which examine them to every different.
Q60. Where are automated correlation options set?
Ans: The automatic correlation is set in recording alternatives area on the correlation tab. Correlation can be enabled for the total script and regulations for correlation can be described.
Automatic correlation can be achieved on a database by using viewing the output window, scanning for correlation, and deciding on the price in an effort to be used.
Q61. What is the advantage of strolling a Vuser script as a thread?
Ans: The benefit of going for walks a Vuser script as a thread which lets in extra Vusers to be used for one load generator. Running Vuser scripts as strategies makes use of a number of memory because all of the loaded scripts use the same motive force.
This limits the quantity of Vuser scripts that may be run on one generator.
Q62. What is the difference between Overlay graph and Correlate graph?
Ans: Overlay graph has one X axis and a pair of Y-axis. Left Y-axis at the merged graph indicates the contemporary graph’s fee & Right Y-axis display the fee of Y-axis of the graph that became merged.
There are graphs and the active graph’s Y-axis becomes X-axis of merged graph. Y-axis of the graph that was merged turns into merged graph’s Y-axis.
Q63. What are the 3 sections of a Vuser script and what is the reason of every one?
Ans: Following are the three sections of Vuser script and they're as follows:
Vuser_init - Used for recording the logon.
Actions - Used for recording the business system.
Vuser_end - Used for recording the logoff.
Q64. What are the four choice methods while choosing facts from a information document?
Ans: Following are the 4 selection strategies:
Q65. What have to be performed to view parameter substitution inside the Execution Log?
Ans: Parameter substitution may be considered within the prolonged log inside the Run time settings.
Q66. What gear are required to research Vuser run results?
Ans: Following tools are required to analyze Vuser run results:
Run-Time Viewer and
Mercury Test Results window
Q67. What is distinction among Manual situation and Goal orientated state of affairs?
Ans: Following are the variations among Manual and Goal Oriented situation:
Manual Scenario Goal Scenario
Main reason is to learn what number of Vusers can run concurrently Goal can be throughput, response time, or quantity of concurrent Vusers
Gives you manual manipulate over how many Vusers run and at what time Load Runner manages Vusers robotically
Q68. What are all of the reasons to apply the Server Resources Monitor?
Ans: Server resources reveal is used to locate how a whole lot statistics is coming from Cache and enables to discover what are all of the elements of the system have bottlenecks.
Q69. What is the purpose of selecting ‘Show browser’ at some point of replay in the General Options settings?
Ans: ‘Show Browser’ setting is used to look the pages that seem throughout playback. This is useful for debugging Vuser during the initial levels of Web Vuser advent.
Q70. For what cause, User might be the usage of ‘retain on’ errors?
Ans: Continue on ought to be set most effective when making Execution Logs extra descriptive or adding good judgment to the Vuser.
Q71. What is the reason of a LoadRunner transaction?
Ans: The motive of a Load Runner transaction is to degree one or more steps/consumer moves of a business process.
Q72. Why do you create parameters?
Ans: Parameters are like script variables and they're used to differ enter to the server to emulate actual customers.
Different units of statistics are sent to the server on every occasion the script is administered.
Better simulate the usage model for extra correct testing from the Controller and one script can emulate many unique customers at the gadget.
Q73. What is lr_output_message?
Ans: The lr_output_message is a feature that sends notifications to the Controller Output window and to the Vuser log record.
Q74. In a Web server, Database and Network are all operating pleasant and now, Where might be the trouble?
Ans: The trouble will be within the system itself or in the application server or inside the code written for the application.
Q75. What is VuGen Recording and Scripting?
Ans: LoadRunner script code is obtained by way of recording inside the ANSI C language syntax and it is able to be considered within the script view.
Q76. What is Performance trying out in LoadRunner?
Ans: Performance checking out can be accomplished by way of calculating the timing for both study and update transactions and test whether system functions are being done in a suitable time-frame. In a multi user environment, it's miles vital to determine the effect of more than one transactions on the timing of a unmarried transaction.
Q77. What is the Configuration of systems whilst the usage of Load Runner?
Ans: The configuration of structures refers to that of the patron machines wherein we are able to run Vusers. The configuration of patron system consists of its hardware settings, memory, working device, software program packages, development gear, etc.
This gadget component configuration need to healthy with the overall device configuration so that it will attain the weight checking out targets.
Q78. What is the use lr_abort characteristic?
Ans: The lr_abort feature is used to abort the execution of a Vuser script. It instructs the Vuser to forestall executing the Actions segment, execute the vuser_end section and quit the execution.
Q79. What is assume time?
Ans: Think time is the time wherein a actual consumer waits between actions.
When a consumer receives facts from a server or different applications, the consumer may wait numerous seconds to review the facts earlier than responding. This time put off is referred to as as assume time.
Q80. How Load Runner interacts with the application?
Ans: Protocol is used in Load Runner to have interaction with the application.
Q81. What is the latest version and language utilized in Load Runner?
Ans: As of 20-Feb-2013 Load Runner 11.Five is the latest version and VUser script is used like a C Language.
Following languages are supported through LoadRunner:
Visual Basic Scripting
Visual Basic For Applications
Q82. What are all of the essential protocols that Load Runner helps?
Ans: Following are the protocols that Load Runner can assist are:
.NET Record / Display
Web and Multimedia
Java Record and replay
Q83. Why do you create parameter?
Ans: To create a parameter you will update the tough coded value in the script and update it with a parameter. This allows a unmarried Vuser to be run frequently, and to apply different data on each run. It helps in stimulating more real life server call for as it prevents server from caching effects.