Interview Questions.

CCNP Interview Questions and Answers


CCNP Interview Questions and Answers

Q1. What is the reason of a default direction?

Ans: A default direction is used if there isn't always a selected access in the routing table for the vacation spot. 

Q2. How many VTP modes are there and what are they?

Ans: Three: Server, Client, and Transparent.

Q3. What is the difference among acknowledgments and handshaking?

Ans: Handshaking is used to barter the houses of a connection that is being hooked up. Acknowledgments are used to tell the sender that facts has been efficaciously received with the aid of the destination during the usage of a connection.

Q4. What does AAA stand for?

Ans: Authentication, authorization, and accounting.

Q5. Describe why postal addresses and smartphone numbers are routable.

Ans: A postal cope with has 3 components that may be used to deliver mail: nation, city, and road. A phone number has an area code and exchange. At the core layer, mail may be introduced to the following submit office primarily based on best the state or metropolis and country facts. A cellphone variety is delivered on the core layer primarily based at the location code.

Q6. What are the purposes of regions in an OSPF community?

Ans: Areas permit the layout of a hierarchical community. Routes can be summarized or blocked in an area to reduce the amount of routing data on inner OSPF routers.

Q7. What is the difference among static routing protocol and dynamic routing protocol?


Static Routing Protocol    Dynamic Routing Protocol

1. Best route is chosen with the aid of community admin    1. By router

2. Requires less memory, cpu utilization    2. More

3. Topology adjustments are not automated    three. Automatic

4. Secure    4. Less comfy

five. Advertises not directly connected networks    5. Directly connected networks

6. Implemented in smaller networks    6. Huge networks

Q8. Describe the distinction between unicast, multicast, and broadcast traffic?

Ans: Unicast site visitors flows from a unmarried supply to a unmarried destination MAC deal with. Multicast traffic flows from a single supply MAC address to many locations and uses a purposeful MAC address. Broadcast visitors is from a single source to all gadgets on the Ethernet section. This is precise through a vacation spot MAC address of all ones.

Q9. What are the four specific Ethernet encapsulation kinds?

Ans: From the Cisco IPX encapsulation command they may be ARPA, NOVELL-ETHER, SAP and SNAP.

Q10. What are the three important tasks of a obvious bridge?

Ans: Learning, Forwarding, Filtering.

Q11. Difference among public ip deal with and personal ip cope with?


Public IP cope with     Private IP deal with

1. Used for Internet access    1.  Used inside an organisation

2. Cannot use same ip deal with in unique locations     2. Possible

three. Assigned by way of IANA    3. Assigned via network administrator

four. Internet Routable on    four. Not routable on Internet

Q12. What does the term information hiding imply with regards to course summarization?

Ans: At the middle layer within the postal machine, the only facts that is had to make a routing choice is the country or metropolis/nation records. The precise road names and avenue numbers are hidden; the middle layer does no longer want this statistics. At the middle layer within the smartphone system, the location code is used to make a routing choice. The specific change or ultimate 4 digits of the telephone range aren't wished, or hidden, from the center layer.

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Q13. What is Summarization?

Ans: Summarization is the method of mixing two or extra smaller networks into one massive community.

There are  sorts of summarization:

Auto Summary: achieved by router.

Manual summary: done via network administrator.

Q14. What is subnetting?

Ans: Subnetting is the procedure of dividing one huge network into smaller smaller networks.

There are  kinds of subnetting strategies to be had:

FLSM: Dividing one large community into subnetworks.

VLSM: Dividing subnetted networks into subne.

Q15. What is HSRP?

Ans: HSRP, or the Hot Standby Routing Protocol, is a Cisco proprietary protocol that brings routing capability to give up gadgets that might in any other case now not be able to taking advantage of redundant community connections. HSRP enables a pair of Cisco routers to paintings collectively to offer the appearance of a single digital default-gateway to stop devices on a LAN phase.

Q16. What sorts of routes are allowed into a completely stubby vicinity?

Types of routes are:


OSPF intra-vicinity routes

A default course

OSPF interarea and external routes aren't advertised into a very stubby region.

Q17. What are the three classes of routing protocols?


Distance vector.


Balanced hybrid.

Q18. How do distance vector routing protocols function?

Ans: Also called Bellman-Ford-Fulkerson algorithms, distance vector routing protocols skip complete routing tables to neighboring routers. Neighboring routers then combine the obtained routing desk with their own routing table. Each router receives a routing desk from its without delay connected neighbor. Distance vector routing tables consist of records approximately the full price and the logical deal with of the primary router on the course to each network they understand approximately.

Q19. What is direction poisoning?

Ans: With direction poisoning, whilst a distance vector routing protocol notices that a path is now not valid, the route is advertised with an infinite metric, signifying that the direction is awful. In RIP, a metric of sixteen is used to signify infinity. Route poisoning is used with holddowns.

Q20. What is the difference among an E1 and E2 OSPF route?

Ans: An E1 route incorporates the OSPF cost to attain the ASBR plus the fee from the ASBR to the outside path. An E2 direction consists of best the price from the ASBR to the outside direction.

Q21. What is the difference among RIP and OSPF?

Ans: RIP broadcast its routing table after every 30 seconds at the same time as OSPF most effective update the ones entries that are lacking the neighbor routing table.

Q22. What is the distinction among Classless and Classfull routing?

Ans: Classfull routing don not put it on the market subnet masks information in conjunction with the community prefix even as classless routing do.

Q23. What is the primary motive of regions in OSPFv2?

Ans: Routers networks are divided in to regions which might be they linked to backbone area0. The areas assist you to present overall performance and clean to address large network.

Q24. What is non-public vlan used for?

Ans: Private Vlan is used where loads of vlans are configured. You most effective need to make one vlan and all different vlans in this vlan.

Q25. What is direction summarization?

Ans: It is a way of summarizing route in one IP/community.

Q26. What is a load balancer?

Ans: Load balancer is a network tool which is used to balance the load in on to be had nodes.

Q27. What does the TTL area of an IP packet header do?

Ans: The TTL discipline indicates the maximum time that a packet can be on the network. Each router that techniques this packet decrements the TTL fee by 1. If the fee reaches 0, the packet is discarded from the network. The cause of this subject is to eliminate the possibility of a packet endlessly traversing the network.

Q28. What is the primary reason of a LAN?

Ans: The number one motive of a local-region network is to allow useful resource sharing. The sources may be gadgets, applications, or records. Examples of shared assets are files, databases, electronic mail, modems, and printers.