Interview Questions.

121 Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers - Jul 17, 2022


121 Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Q1. What is the distinction between Functional Requirement and Non-Functional Requirement?

Ans: The Functional Requirement specifies how the system or application SHOULD DO where in

Non Functional Requirement it specifies how the device or application SHOULD BE.

Some practical Requirements are


Business policies

Historical Data

Legal and Regulatory Requirements

External Interfaces

Some Non-Functional Requirements are





Data Integrity


Q2. How Severity and Priority are related to every other?


Severity- tells the seriousness/intensity of the trojan horse where as

Priority- tells which trojan horse should rectify first.

Severity- Application factor of view

Priority- User factor of view

Q3. Explain the specific kinds of Severity?


User Interface Defect-Low

Boundary Related Defects-Medium

Error Handling Defects-Medium

Calculation Defects-High

Interpreting Data Defects-High

Hardware Failures& Problems-High

Compatibility and Inter device defects-High

Control Flow defects-High

Load situations (Memory leakages under load checking out)-High

Q4a. What is the difference between Priority and Severity?

Ans: The phrases Priority and Severity are used in Bug Tracking to proportion the importance of a trojan horse some of the team and to restoration it.

Severity: Is located inside the Application point of view

Priority- Is located within the User point of view

Severity- (tells the seriousness/intensity of the bug)

The Severity repute is used to provide an explanation for how badly the deviation is affecting the construct.

The severity kind is defined with the aid of the tester based on the written check instances and functionality.


If an software or a web web page crashes whilst a far off link is clicked, in this case clicking the faraway hyperlink by means of an user is rare however the effect of application crashing is severe, so the severity is excessive and precedence is low.

PRIORITY- (tells which trojan horse ought to rectify first)

The Priority popularity is ready by the tester to the developer mentioning the time-frame to repair a defect. If High priority is referred to then the developer has to repair it at the earliest.

The priority repute is about based at the client necessities.


If the agency name is misspelled inside the home web page of a internet site, then the priority is high and the severity is low to restore it.

Severity: Describes the worm in phrases of functionality.

Priority: Describes the computer virus in phrases of client.

Few examples:

High Severity and Low Priority -> Application doesn't permit consumer anticipated configuration.

High Severity and High Priority -> Application does not permit a couple of user's.

Low Severity and High Priority -> No blunders message to prevent wrong operation.

Low Severity and low Priority -> Error message is having complicated which means.


Few examples:

High Severity -Low precedence

Supposing, you strive the wildest or the most eldritch of operations in a software program (say, to be launched tomorrow) which a everyday user might now not do and supposing this renders a run -time error within the application,the severity would be high. The precedence might be low as the operations or the stairs which rendered this mistake by using maximum chances will now not be accomplished by using a user.

Low Severity -High priority

An instance might be- you find a spelling mistake inside the call of the internet site that you are trying out.Say, the name is supposed to be Google and its spelled there as 'Gaogle'. Though, it doesn't have an effect on the primary functionality of the software, it wishes to be corrected earlier than the discharge. Hence, the priority is excessive.

High severity- High Priority

A worm that's a display stopper. I.E., a worm due to which we are unable to continue our checking out.An example could be a run time mistakes at some point of the normal operation of the software program,which would reason the application to give up unexpectedly.

Low severity - low precedence

Cosmetic insects

Q4b. What is Defect Severity?

Ans: A disorder is a product anomaly or flaw, that is variance from favored product specification. The category of disorder based on its effect on operation of product is known as Defect Severity.

Q5. What is Bucket Testing?

Ans: Bucket testing (additionally known as A/B Testing) is generally used to look at the impact of diverse product designs in internet site metrics, two simultaneous variations had been run in a unmarried or set of net pages to degree the distinction in click fees, interface and visitors.

Q6. What is Entry and Exit Criteria in Software Testing?

Ans: Entry Criteria is the process that should be present whilst a machine starts offevolved, like,

 SRS (Software Requirement Specification)

 FRS (Functional Requirement Specification)


 Test Case

 Test plan

Exit Criteria guarantees whether or not testing is finished and the utility is prepared for release, like,

Test Summary Report


Defect Analysis file

Q7. What is Concurrency Testing?

Ans: Concurrency Testing (additionally typically referred to as Multi User Testing) is used to know the effects of getting access to the Application, Code Module or Database by one-of-a-kind users at the identical time.It helps in identifying and measuring the issues in Response time, tiers of locking and deadlocking inside the utility.


Load runner is broadly used for this form of testing, Vugen (Virtual User Generator) is used to feature the wide variety of concurrent users and how the customers want to be added like Gradual Ramp up or Spike Stepped.

Q8. Explain Statement insurance/Code insurance/Line Coverage?

Ans: Statement Coverage or Code Coverage or Line Coverage is a metric utilized in White Box Testing where we can identify the statements executed and in which the code isn't always executed purpose of blockage. In this system every and each line of the code needs to be checked and completed.

Some benefits of Statement Coverage / Code Coverage / Line Coverage are

It verifies what the written code is predicted to do and no longer to do.

It measures the first-class of code written.

It checks the drift of different paths in the program also ensure whether or not those paths are examined or not.

To Calculate Statement Coverage,

Statement Coverage = Statements Tested / Total No. Of Statements.

Q9. Explain Branch Coverage/Decision Coverage?

Ans: Branch Coverage or Decision Coverage metric is used to test the quantity of checking out completed in all components. This procedure is used to make certain whether or not all the code is performed by verifying each branch or decision outcome (if and even as statements) by using executing atleast one time, in order that no branches cause the failure of the software.

To Calculate Branch Coverage,

Branch Coverage = Tested Decision Outcomes / Total Decision Outcomes.

Q10. What is the difference among High stage and Low Level test case?

Ans: High stage Test instances are the ones which cowl predominant capability in the software (i.E. Retrieve, replace display, cancel (capability related test cases), database take a look at cases).

Low level test cases are those associated with User Interface (UI) within the software.

Q11. Explain Localization trying out with instance?

Ans: Localization is the manner of changing or editing an software to a specific tradition or locale. This consists of alternate in person interface, graphical designs or maybe the preliminary settings consistent with their way of life and necessities.

In terms of Localization Testing it verifies how successfully the software is modified or modified into that target culture and language.

In case of translation required of the software on that nearby language, checking out ought to be accomplished on every subject to test the proper translation. Other formats like date conversion, hardware and software usage like operating machine should additionally be taken into consideration in localization trying out.

Examples for Localization Testing are

In Islamic Banking all of the transactions and product features are based on Shariah Law, a few crucial points to be cited in Islamic Banking are

In Islamic Banking, the bank stocks the profit and loss with the consumer.

In Islamic Banking, the bank can't rate interest at the consumer; rather they rate a nominal charge that's termed as "Profit

In Islamic Banking, the financial institution will now not deal or invest in business like Gambling, Alcohol, Pork, etc.

In this case, we need to test whether or not these Islamic banking conditions had been changed and implemented within the application or product.

In Islamic Lending, they observe each the Gregorian calendar and Hijiri Calendar for calculating the loan reimbursement schedule. The Hijiri Calendar is usually known as as Islamic Calendar observed in all the Muslim countries in keeping with the lunar cycle. The Hijiri Calendar has 12 months and 354 days which is eleven days shorter than Gregorian calendar. In this example, we need to check the compensation agenda by means of comparing both the Gregorian calendar and Hijiri Calendar.

Q12. Explain Risk Analysis in Software Testing?

Ans: In Software Testing, Risk Analysis is the process of identifying dangers in applications and prioritizing them to test.

In Software checking out a few unavoidable hazard may takes location like

Change in requirements or Incomplete necessities

Time allocation for trying out.

Developers delaying to deliver the construct for trying out.

Urgency from patron for shipping.

Defect Leakage because of software length or complexity.

To conquer these dangers, the following activities can be done

Conducting Risk Assessment evaluate meeting with the development crew.

Profile for Risk coverage is created via bringing up the significance of every location.

Using most resources to work on High Risk regions like allocating greater testers for High hazard areas and minimum resources for Medium and Low risk regions. Creation of Risk evaluation database for future renovation and control review.

Q13. What is the difference between Two Tier Architecture and Three Tier Architecture?


In Two Tier Architecture or Client/Server Architecture  layers like Client and Server is involved. The Client sends request to Server and the Server responds to the request via fetching the records from it. The hassle with the Two Tier Architecture is the server can not respond to more than one requests at the identical time which causes records integrity troubles.

The Client/Server Testing entails testing the Two Tier Architecture of consumer interface inside the the front cease and database as backend with dependencies on Client, Hardware and Servers.

In Three Tier Architecture or Multi Tier Architecture 3 layers like Client, Server and Database are involved. In this the Client sends a request to Server, wherein the Server sends the request to Database for information, primarily based on that request the Database sends back the records to Server and from Server the records is forwarded to Client.

The Web Application Testing entails checking out the Three Tier Architecture which include the User interface, Functionality, Performance, Compatibility, Security and Database trying out.

Q14. What is the distinction among Static checking out and dynamic trying out ?

Ans: Static Testing (performed in Verification stage)

Static Testing is a White Box trying out technique in which the builders confirm or test their code with the assist of tick list to find mistakes in it, this form of trying out is accomplished with out walking the certainly advanced software or program. Code Reviews, Inspections, Walkthroughs are by and large executed on this stage of checking out.

Dynamic Testing (done in Validation stage)

Dynamic Testing is achieved via executing the real application with valid inputs to test the expected output. Examples of Dynamic Testing methodologies are Unit Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing and Acceptance Testing.

Some variations among Static Testing and Dynamic Testing are,

Static Testing is greater price powerful than Dynamic Testing because Static Testing is achieved within the preliminary stage.

In terms of Statement Coverage, the Static Testing covers extra regions than Dynamic Testing in shorter time.

Static Testing is finished earlier than the code deployment in which the Dynamic Testing is achieved after the code deployment.

Static Testing is executed inside the Verification stage where the Dynamic Testing is accomplished inside the Validation degree.

HubSpot Video


Q15. Explain Use case diagram. What are the attributes of use cases?

Ans: Use Case Diagrams is an overview graphical illustration of the functionality in a device. It is used in the evaluation section of a undertaking to specify the gadget to be evolved.

In Use Case Diagrams the complete system is defined as ACTORS, USE CASES and ASSOCIATIONS, the ACTORS are the external part of the machine like customers, laptop software program & hardware, USECASES is the behavior or functionality of the device whilst those ACTORS perform an action, the ASSOCIATIONS are the line drawn to reveal the relationship among ACTORS and USECASES. One ACTOR can link too many USECASES and one USECASE can link too many ACTORS.

Q16. What is Web Application testing? Explain the special stages in Web Application trying out?

Ans: Web Application testing is achieved on a internet site to check its load, performance, Security, Functionality, Interface, compatibility and other usability related issues. In Web utility trying out, three levels of trying out is finished, they're,

Web Tier Testing

In Web tier testing, the browser compatibility of the utility may be examined for IE, Fire Fox and different internet browsers.

Middle Tier Testing

In Middle tier testing, the functionality and safety troubles have been tested.

Database Tier Testing

In Database tier testing, the database integrity and the contents of the database were examined and verified.


Q17. Explain Unit testing, Interface Testing and Integration checking out. Also provide an explanation for the styles of integration testing in short?

Unit trying out

Ans: Unit Testing is carried out to check whether the individual modules of the supply code are working nicely. I.E. Testing each and each unit of the software one by one with the aid of the developer in developer's environment.

Interface Testing

Interface Testing is carried out to check whether the individual modules are communicating well certainly one of other as according to the specs.

Interface trying out is frequently used in testing the person interface of GUI application.

Integration trying out

Integration Testing is done to test the connectivity via combining all of the character modules collectively and take a look at the functionality.

The types of Integration Testing are

1.Big Bang Integration Testing

In Big Bang Integration Testing, the individual modules aren't incorporated till all of the modules are prepared. Then they'll run to check whether it's far performing properly.

In this form of trying out, some risks may occur like,

Defects can be observed at the later degree.It might be hard to find out whether or not the defect arouse in Interface or in module.

2.Top Down Integration Testing

In Top Down Integration Testing, the excessive level modules are integrated and examined first. I.E Testing from primary module to sub module. In this kind of checking out, Stubs are used as brief module if a module is not ready for integration checking out.

3.  Bottom Up Integration Testing

In Bottom Up Integration Testing, the low stage modules are integrated and tested first i.E Testing from sub module to predominant module. Same like Stubs, here drivers are used as a brief module for integration checking out.

Q18. Explain Alpha, Beta, Gamma Testing?

Ans: Alpha Testing:

Alpha Testing is primarily like acting usability trying out which is completed by way of the in-residence builders who advanced the software program or testers. Sometimes this Alpha Testing is finished through the customer or an intruder with the presence of developer and tester. The version launch after alpha testing is known as Alpha Release.

Beta Testing:

Beta Testing is carried out by means of confined number of stop users earlier than transport, the exchange request might be fixed if the consumer gives comments or reviews disorder. The version launch after beta testing is referred to as beta Release.

Gamma Testing:

Gamma Testing is carried out whilst the software is prepared for launch with certain necessities, this testing is finished directly by skipping all the in-residence testing sports.

Q19. Explain the strategies and strategies used for Security Testing?

Ans: Security checking out can be done in many methods like,

Black Box Testing

White Box Testing

Database Testing

Black Box Testing

Session Hijacking

Session Hijacking generally called as "IP Spoofing" in which a user session will be attacked on a covered network.

1.Session Prediction

Session prediction is a way of acquiring data or a consultation ID of a licensed person and receives get admission to to the utility. In a web application the consultation ID may be retrieved from cookies or URL.

The session prediction happening can be expected whilst a website isn't responding commonly or stops responding for an unknown motive.

2.Email Spoofing

Email Spoofing is duplicating the email header ("From" cope with) to look like originated from real supply and if the e-mail is replied it'll land within the spammers inbox. By putting instructions within the header the message records may be altered. It is possible to send a spoofed email with facts you did not write.

Three.Content Spoofing

Content spoofing is a way to broaden a fake website and make the user agree with that the information and website is genuine. When the person enters his Credit Card Number, Password, SSN and other important details the hacker can get the facts and use if for fraud purposes.

Four. Phishing

Phishing is much like Email Spoofing wherein the hacker sends a real appear like mail attempting to get the personal and economic data of the consumer. The emails will seem to have come from well known websites.

5. Password Cracking

Password Cracking is used to become aware of an unknown password or to identify a forgotten password

Password cracking can be done thru two ways,

Brute Force – The hacker tries with a aggregate of characters within a duration and attempts until it's miles getting commonplace.

Password Dictionary – The hacker uses the Password dictionary in which it's miles to be had on various subjects.

 White Box stage

 Malicious Code Injection

SQL Injection is most popular in Code Injection Attack, the hacker connect the malicious code into the coolest code by using putting the sector within the application. The purpose in the back of the injection is to scouse borrow the secured facts which changed into supposed to be utilized by a set of users.

Apart from SQL Injection, the other styles of malicious code injection are XPath Injection, LDAP Injection, and Command Execution Injection. Similar to SQL Injection the XPath Injection deals with XML file.

B. Penetration Testing:

Penetration Testing is used to check the safety of a laptop or a network. The check method explores all of the security elements of the device and tries to penetrate the system.

C. Input validation:

Input validation is used to defend the applications from hackers. If the enter isn't always tested broadly speaking in web packages it is able to lead to machine crashes, database manipulation and corruption.

D. Variable Manipulation

Variable manipulation is used as a technique for specifying or modifying the variables in a application. It is more often than not used to alter the data despatched to internet server.

3. Database Level

 SQL Injection

SQL Injection is used to hack the websites by changing the backend SQL statements, using this method the hacker can thieve the facts from database and additionally delete and adjust it.

Q20.Explain IEEE 829 standards and other Software Testing requirements?

Ans: An IEEE 829 standard is used for Software Test Documentation, wherein it specifies format for the set of documents for use inside the unique stages software checking out. The documents are,

Test Plan- Test Plan is a making plans document which has statistics approximately the scope, sources, period, take a look at coverage and different info.

Test Design- Test Design document has records of test bypass standards with check situations and predicted results.

Test Case- Test case record has data approximately the test facts for use.

Test Procedure- Test Procedure has facts approximately the test steps to be followed and the way to execute it.

Test Log- Test log has details about the run test cases, test plans & fail reputation, order, and the resource facts who examined it.

Test Incident Report- Test Incident Report has information approximately the failed test comparing the actual result with expected end result.

Test Summary Report- Test Summary Report has statistics about the trying out performed and quality of the software program, it also analyses whether or not the software program has met the requirements given by way of patron.

The other standards related to software program trying out are,

IEEE 1008 is for Unit Testing

IEEE 1012 is for Software verification and validation

IEEE 1028 is for Software Inspections

IEEE 1061 is for Software metrics and method

IEEE 1233 is for guiding the SRS improvement

IEEE 12207 is for SLC manner

Q21. What is Test Harness?

Ans: Test Harness is configuring a fixed of gear and take a look at records to check an utility in numerous situations, which involves monitoring the output with anticipated output for correctness.

The benefits of Test Harness are,

Productivity increase because of system automation.

Quality in the application.

Q22 .What is the difference among bug log and illness tracking ?

Ans: Bug Log: Bug Log file showing the number of disorder such as open, closed, reopen or deferred of a selected module

Defect Tracking- The process of tracking a disorder such as symptom, whether reproducible /not, priority, severity and standing.

Q23. What are Integration Testing and Regression Testing?


Integration Testing:

Combining the modules collectively & construct software program structure.

To test the communique & statistics go with the flow

White & Black field checking out strategies are used

It is carried out by developer & tester

Regression Testing

It is re-execution of our trying out after the worm is fixed to ensure that the construct is loose from insects.

Done after trojan horse is fixed

It is completed by Tester

Q24. Explain Peer Review in Software Testing?


It is an opportunity form of Testing, in which a few colleagues have been invited to examine your work products for defects and development possibilities.

Some Peer review techniques are,


It is a greater systematic and rigorous kind of peer assessment. Inspections are greater powerful at finding defects than are informal evaluations.

Ex: In Motorola's Iridium challenge nearly 80% of the defects had been detected thru inspections in which best 60% of the defects have been detected via formal evaluations.

Team Reviews: It is a deliberate and structured method but much less formal and less rigorous evaluating to Inspections.

Walkthrough: It is an casual review due to the fact the work product's author describes it to a few colleagues and asks for tips. Walkthroughs are informal because they generally do not comply with a described procedure, do no longer specify exit criteria, require no management reporting, and generate no metrics.


A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for assessment or informational purposes. Little or no instruction is generally required.

Pair Programming: In Pair Programming,  builders work collectively at the identical software at a single workstation and constantly reviewing their paintings.

Peer Desk check

In Peer Desk take a look at handiest one individual besides the author examines the work product. It is an informal review, in which the reviewer can use illness checklists and a few evaluation methods to boom the effectiveness.

Passaround: It is a multiple, concurrent peer table take a look at wherein several humans are invited to provide comments on the product.

Q25. Explain Compatibility testing with an instance?


Compatibility testing is to assess the software compatibility with the computing environment like Operating System, Database, Browser compatibility, backwards compatibility, computing capacity of the Hardware Platform and compatibility of the Peripherals.


If Compatibility checking out is completed on a Game software, before installing a recreation on a computer, its compatibility is checked with the pc specification that whether it is well suited with the computer having that a whole lot of specification or not.

Q26. What is Traceability Matrix?


Traceability Matrix is a file used for tracking the requirement, Test instances and the defect. This file is ready to make the clients fulfill that the insurance done is entire as give up to give up, this document includes Requirement/Base line document Ref No., Test case/Condition, Defects / Bug identity. Using this report the man or woman can track the Requirement based totally at the Defect identity.

Q27. Explain Boundary fee checking out and Equivalence checking out with a few examples?


Boundary fee testing is a way to find whether or not the application is accepting the predicted variety of values and rejecting the values which falls out of variety.


A user ID text box has to accept alphabet characters ( a-z ) with length of 4 to ten characters.

BVA is achieved like this, max price: 10 pass; max-1: 9 pass;

max+1=11 fail ;min=4 skip;min+1=5 pass;min-1=three fail;

Like smart we check the nook values and pop out with a end whether or not the application is accepting correct variety of values.

Equivalence trying out is normally used to check the kind of the item.


A user ID text container has to just accept alphabet characters (a - z) with period of 4 to 10 characters.

In +ve condition we have check the object via giving alphabets. I.E. A-z char simplest, after that we want to check whether or not the object accepts the price, it will skip.

In -ve condition we've to check by using giving aside from alphabets (a-z) i.E. A-Z, 0-nine, blank etc, it will fail.

Q28. What is Security testing?


Security checking out is the procedure that determines that confidential facts remains exclusive


Testing how well the device protects against unauthorized internal or external get admission to, willful harm, etc?

This system includes practical trying out, penetration trying out and verification.

Q29. What is Installation testing?

Ans: Installation trying out is finished to confirm whether the hardware and software are set up and configured well. This will ensure that each one the gadget components have been used during the trying out technique. This Installation trying out will look out the testing for a excessive volume records, blunders messages as well as security testing.

Q30. What is AUT?

Ans: AUT is nothing however "Application Under Test". After the designing and coding section in Software improvement lifestyles cycle, the utility comes for trying out then at that point the utility is said as Application Under Test.

Q31. What is Defect Leakage?

Ans: Defect leakage takes place on the Customer or the End person facet after the application delivery. After the release of the utility to the consumer, if the end user receives any form of defects by the usage of that utility then it's miles known as as Defect leakage. This Defect Leakage is also known as as Bug Leakage.

Q32. What are the contents in an powerful Bug file?






Detected By (Name of the Tester)

Assigned To (Name of the Developer who is supposed to the Bug)

Test Lead (Name)

Detected in Version

Closed in Version

Date Detected

Expected Date of Closure

Actual Date of Closure

Priority (Medium, Low, High, Urgent)

Severity (Ranges from 1 to 5)


Bug ID


Test Case Failed (Test case that is failed for the Bug)

Q33. What is Error guessing and Error seeding?

Ans: Error Guessing is a take a look at case design method wherein the tester has to guess what faults may arise and to layout the tests to represent them.

Error Seeding is the technique of including known faults intentionally in a application for the purpose of tracking the rate of detection & elimination and also to estimate the quantity of faults final within the application.

Q34. What is Ad-hoc checking out?

Ans:  Ad hoc testing is concern with the Application Testing with out following any policies or take a look at instances.

For Ad hoc trying out one must have strong information about the Application.

Q35. What are the basic solutions for the software improvement problems?


Basic requirements- A clean, unique, entire, viable, testable requirement needs to be developed. Use a few prototypes to assist pin down requirements. In nimble environments, non-stop and close coordination with customers/cease-customers is needed.

Schedules should be realistic-enough time to plan, layout, test, trojan horse fix, re-test, exchange, and file within the given schedule. Adequate

checking out- trying out must be commenced early, it must be re-examined after the worm fixed or changed, enough time ought to be spend for testing and worm-fixing.

Proper have a look at on initial requirements-be equipped to appearance after greater modifications after the development has started and be ready to give an explanation for the modifications executed to others. Work closely with the clients and quit-users to control expectations. This avoids excessive adjustments inside the later stages.

Communication-behavior frequent inspections and walkthroughs in suitable term; ensure that the statistics and the documentation is available on up to date if possible electronic. More emphasize on selling teamwork and cooperation in the group; use prototypes and proper communique with the quit-customers to clarify their doubts and expectancies.

Q36. What are the not unusual issues inside the software improvement method?

Ans: Inadequate requirements from the Client: if the requirements given by way of the purchaser is not clear, unfinished and now not testable, then troubles may come.

Unrealistic schedules: Sometimes too much of work is being given to the developer and ask him to finish in a Short duration, then the problems are unavoidable.

Insufficient testing: The problems can arise whilst the developed software isn't always tested properly.

Given any other work below the existing procedure: request from the better management to paintings on any other undertaking or project will carry some issues when the challenge is being examined as a crew.

Miscommunication: in a few instances, the developer turned into now not informed approximately the Clients requirement and expectancies, so there may be deviations.

Q37. What is the difference among Software Testing and Quality Assurance (QA) ?

Ans: Software Testing includes operation of a machine or software beneath controlled situations and comparing the result. It is orientated to 'detection'.

Quality Assurance (QA) entails the whole software program improvement PROCESS- monitoring and enhancing the manner, making sure that any agreed-upon standards and approaches are observed, and making sure that issues are found and treated. It is orientated to 'prevention'.

Q38. How to Test the water bottle?


Note: Before going to generate a few check concept on how to test a water bottle, I would really like to invite few questions like:

Is it a bottle made up off glass, plastic, rubber, a few metal, a few form of disposable materials or any aspect else?

Is it supposed most effective to warm water or we are able to use it with different fluids like tea, espresso, smooth beverages, hot chocolate, soups, wine, cooking oil, vinegar, gas, acids, molten lava (!) and so on.?

Who goes to apply this bottle? A college going child, a housewife, a few beverage production business enterprise, an workplace-goer, a sports guy, a mob protesting in a rally (going to use as missiles), an Eskimo residing in an igloo or an astronaut in a space ship?

These kinds of questions might also permit a tester to realize a product (that he is going to test) in a higher way. In our case, I am assuming that the water bottle is in form of a pet bottle and in fact made up off both plastic or glass (there are 2 variations of the product) and is meant to be used in particular with water. About the targeted user, even the producing organisation is not positive approximately them! (Sounds familiar! When a software corporation develops a product with out clean concept about the customers who are going to use the software program!)

Test Ideas

Check the dimension of the bottle. See if it simply seems like a water bottle or a cylinder, a bowl, a cup, a flower vase, a pen stand or a dustbin! [Build Verification Testing!]

See if the cap suits properly with the bottle.[Installability Testing!]

Test if the mouth of the bottle isn't always too small to pour water. [Usability Testing!]

Fill the bottle with water and maintain it on a easy dry floor. See if it leaks. [Usability Testing!]

Fill the bottle with water, seal it with the cap and spot if water leaks when the bottle is tilted, inverted, squeezed (in case of plastic made bottle)! [Usability Testing!]

Take water in the bottle and maintain it inside the refrigerator for cooling. See what happens. [Usability Testing!]

Keep a water-crammed bottle within the refrigerator for a totally long term (say a week). See what takes place to the water and/or bottle. [Stress Testing!]

Keep a water-stuffed bottle beneath freezing circumstance. See if the bottle expands (if plastic made) or breaks (if glass made). [Stress Testing!]

Try to warmth (boil!) water through maintaining the bottle in a microwave oven! [Stress Testing!]

Pour a few hot (boiling!) water into the bottle and spot the effect. [Stress Testing!]

Keep a dry bottle for a very long time. See what happens. See if any bodily or chemical deformation takes place to the bottle.

Test the water after retaining it inside the bottle and notice if there may be any chemical alternate. See if it's far safe to be fed on as consuming water.

Keep water inside the bottle for someday. And see if the odor of water adjustments.

Try the use of the bottle with extraordinary styles of water (like tough and tender water). [Compatibility Testing!]

Try to drink water without delay from the bottle and notice if it is comfortable to apply. Or water gets spilled even as doing so. [Usability Testing!]

Test if the bottle is ergonomically designed and if it's miles at ease to hold. Also see if the center of gravityof the bottle remains low (each while empty and while filled with water) and it does now not topple down without problems.

Drop the bottle from an affordable top (may be top of a eating table) and notice if it breaks (both with plastic and glass model). If it's miles a tumbler bottle then in maximum instances it can spoil. See if it breaks into tiny little pieces (which are regularly hard to clean) or breaks into pleasant huge pieces (which may be wiped clean without an awful lot trouble). [Stress Testing!] [Usability Testing!]

Test the above test concept with empty bottles and bottles filled with water. [Stress Testing!]

Test if the bottle is made up of cloth, that is recyclable. In case of plastic made bottle test if it is without difficulty crushable.

Test if the bottle can also be used to maintain different not unusual family such things as honey, fruit juice, gasoline, paint, turpentine, liquid wax and many others. [Capability Testing!]

Q39. What is Portlet Testing ?


Following are the functions that must be focused even as testing a portlet

i. Test alignment/length show with a couple of style sheets and portal configurations. When you configure a portlet item inside the portal, you should pick from the subsequent alignments:

a. Narrow portlets are displayed in a slim side column at the portal web page. Narrow portlets need to healthy in a column that is fewer than 255 pixels extensive.

B. Wide portlets are displayed in the middle or widest side column on the portal page. Wide portlets match in a column fewer than 500 pixels extensive.

Ii. Test all hyperlinks and buttons in the portlet display. (if there are errors, test that all forms and functions are uniquely named, and that the preference and gateway settings are configured successfully in the portlet net service editor.)

iii. Test putting and converting alternatives. (if there are mistakes, test that the choices are uniquely named and that the choice and gateway settings are configured successfully in the portlet internet provider editor.)

iv. Test verbal exchange with the backend software. Confirm that movements finished thru the portlet are completed efficiently. (if there are mistakes, take a look at the gateway configuration within the portlet web provider editor.)

v. Test localized portlets in all supported languages. (if there are errors, ensure that the language files are set up effectively and are reachable to the portlet.)

vi. If the portlet displays at ease facts or uses a password, use a tunnel device to verify that any relaxed information isn't always sent or stored in clean text.

Vii. If backwards compatibility is supported, take a look at portlets in more than one variations of the portal.

Q40. What is Equivalence Partitioning?

Ans: Concepts: Equivalence partitioning is a technique for deriving check cases. In this approach, instructions of enter conditions called equivalence instructions are

diagnosed such that every member of the magnificence reasons the equal kind of

processing and output to occur. In this technique, the tester identifies numerous equivalence training for partitioning. A magnificence is a fixed of input conditions which can be is likely to be treated the identical way by using the system. If the system had been to address one case in the class erroneously, it might manage all cases erroneously.

Q41. Why Learn Equivalence Partitioning?

Ans: Equivalence partitioning substantially cuts down the range of check instances required to check a device fairly. It is an try and get a very good 'hit charge', to locate the most errors with the smallest quantity of test cases.


Ans: To use equivalence partitioning, you will want to carry out  steps.

Identify the equivalence instructions

Design take a look at instances


IDENTIFY EQUIVALENCE CLASSES Take every input condition described within the specification and derive as a minimum  equivalence lessons for it. One class represents the set of instances which satisfy the circumstance (the valid class) and one represents instances which do not (the invalid class) Following are some widespread tips for figuring out equivalence classes: a) If the requirements country that a numeric cost is input to the system and have to be inside a number values, identify one valid magnificence inputs that are inside the legitimate variety and  invalid equivalence training inputs which are too low and inputs which might be too excessive. For example, if an object in stock will have a amount of - 9999 to + 9999, identify the subsequent lessons:

One valid magnificence: (QTY is greater than or identical to -9999 and is much less than or identical to 9999). This is written as (- 9999 < = QTY < = 9999)

The invalid magnificence (QTY is much less than -9999), also written as (QTY < -9999)

The invalid class (QTY is greater than 9999) , also written as (QTY >9999) b) If the necessities kingdom that the variety of items enter via the device in some unspecified time in the future should lie inside a sure variety, specify one valid elegance where the variety of inputs is in the legitimate variety, one invalid magnificence wherein there are too few inputs and one invalid elegance wherein there are, too many inputs.

Q42. What are two types of Metrics?


Process metrics: Primary metrics also are called as Process metrics. This is the metric the Six Sigma practitioners care about and may impact. Primary metrics are nearly the direct output feature of a process. It is a degree of a procedure and now not a degree of a high-level business goal. Primary Process metrics are usually Process Defects, Process cycle time and Process intake.

Product metrics: Product metrics quantitatively characterize a few component of the shape of a software product, including a requirements specification, a layout, or source code.

Q43. What is the Outcome of Testing?


A strong application, appearing its mission as predicted.

Q44. Why do you cross for White field testing, when Black container trying out is available?

Ans: A benchmark that certifies Commercial (Business) factors and also useful (technical) components is objectives of black box trying out. Here loops, structures, arrays, conditions, files, and so forth are very micro stage however they arc Basement for any utility, So White box takes this stuff in Macro level and take a look at these things

Q45. What is Baseline report, Can you say any ?

Ans: A baseline file, which begins the expertise of the application before the tester, starts actual testing. Functional Specification and Business Requirement Document

Q46. Tell names of some testing kind that you learnt or skilled?

Ans: Any 5 or 6 types which are associated with businesses profile is ideal to mention inside the interview,

Ad - Hoc trying out

Cookie Testing

CET (Customer Experience Test)

Depth Test


Performance Testing

Recovery checking out

Sanity Test

Security Testing

Smoke trying out

Web Testing

Q47. What exactly is Heuristic checklist technique for unit testing?

Ans: It is approach of attaining the most suitable answer of several observed by means of alternative techniques is selected at successive ranges trying out. The tick list Prepared to Proceed is known as Heuristic checklist

Q48. What is a Data Guideline?

Ans: Data Guidelines are used to specify the information required to populate the take a look at mattress and put together test scripts. It consists of all facts parameters that are required to test the conditions derived from the requirement / specification The Document, which supports in preparing test information are referred to as Data recommendations

Q49. Why do you pass for Test Bed?

Ans: When Test Condition is completed its end result need to be in comparison to Test end result (predicted result), as Test data is wanted for this right here comes the position of test Bed where Test facts is made ready.

Q50. Why will we put together take a look at condition, take a look at instances, take a look at script (Before Starting Testing)?

Ans: These are take a look at layout report which can be used to execute the actual trying out Without which execution of checking out is impossible, eventually this execution is going to discover the bugs to be fixed so we've prepare this files.

Q51. Is it no longer waste of time in making ready the check situation, test case & Test Script?

Ans: No document prepared in any technique is waste of rime, That too test layout files which plays important position in take a look at execution can never be said waste of time as without which right testing can't be achieved.

Q52. How do you cross about testing of Web Application?

Ans: To technique an internet utility trying out, the first assault at the application need to be on its overall performance conduct as this is very essential for an internet utility and then transfer of statistics between net server and .Front end server, protection server and returned quit server.

Q53. What form of Document you want for going for a Functional trying out?

Ans: Functional specification is the final report, which expresses all the functionalities of the software and different documents like user manual and BRS are also need for functional testing. Gap evaluation document will add cost to apprehend anticipated and present gadget.

Q54. Can the System testing be finished at any degree?

Ans: No, .The system as an entire can be tested most effective if all modules arc integrated and all modules work successfully System trying out need to be done before UAT (User Acceptance testing) and Before Unit Testing.

Q55. What is Mutation checking out & whilst can it be finished?

Ans: Mutation checking out is a powerful fault-primarily based checking out approach for unit level trying out. Since it's miles a fault-based totally checking out technique, it's miles geared toward checking out and uncovering a few particular types of faults, namely easy syntactic modifications to a application. Mutation testing is primarily based on  assumptions: the in a position programmer speculation and the coupling impact. The competent programmer speculation assumes that ready programmers flip to put in writing nearly "accurate" packages. The coupling effect stated that a fixed of test records that may find all easy faults in a software is also able to detecting more complex faults. Mutation testing injects faults into code to determine most advantageous check inputs.

Q56. Why it's miles not possible to test a program absolutely?

Ans: With any software apart from the smallest and handiest application, there are too many inputs, too many outputs, and too many path combos to fully test. Also, software program specifications can be subjective and be interpreted in different approaches.

Q57. How will you evaluation the test case and how many types are there?

Ans: There are 2 types of evaluate:

Informal Review: technical lead reviewing.

Peer Review: by a peer at the identical business enterprise (walkthrough? Technical - inspection).



Management Review

Technical Review

Code Review

Formal Review (Inspections and Audits)

Informal Review (Peer Review and Code Review)

and coming to stroll thru....

Goals of Reviews:

To find defects in requirements.

To locate defects in Design.

To identify deviations in any process and also provide valued hints to enhance the system.

Q58. What do you mean by Pilot Testing?


Pilot checking out includes having a group of end users strive the machine prior to its complete deployment a good way to give feedback on IIS five.0 features and features.


Pilot Testing is a Testing Activity which resembles the Production Environment.

It is Done Exactly among UAT and Production Drop.

Few Users who simulate the Production environment to keep the Business Activity with the System.

They Will Check the Major Functionality of the System earlier than going into manufacturing. This is basically performed to avoid the excessive-degree Disasters.

Priority of the Pilot Testing Is High and Issues Raised in Pilot Testing has to be Fixed As Soon As Possible.

Q59. What is SRS and BRS in guide checking out?

Ans: BRS is Business Requirement Specification which means that the purchaser who need to make the application gives the specification to software development employer and then the organisation convert it to SRS (Software requirement Specification) as in line with the need of the software program.

Q60. What is Smoke Test and Sanity Testing? When will use the Above Tests?

Ans: Smoke Testing: It is performed to make sure if the construct we were given is testable or no longer, i.E to check for the testability of the build additionally referred to as as "day 0" test. Done at the 'build stage'